Index

ancient DNA

studies of, 165—66, 195—96

in ancient Maya, 170

Ashkenazi Jews

CMH present in, 84

descent of, 13, 270

percentage of Jewish population as, 95

Q-P36 marker as founding lineage in, 85—87

Tay-Sachs disease and, 273

beards as a genetic indicator, 58

blood groups

four classes of, 2

as key to population relationships, 3, 200

of Lembas and Falasha Jews, 14

Native American studies of, by Michael Crawford, 194

of Peruvian mummies, 10

Zegura’s genetic studies of, 6

Book of Mormon demographics, 74

existence of other peoples in the land in, 42—44, 123, 224—49

historical analysis of the Book of Mormon in, 27—29

Book of Mormon geography, 29—31, 124

actual location in Americas of, 31, 32

historical analysis of, 27—29

Latter-day Saint revelation on, 38—41

migration from Mesoamerica in, 32—34

traditions of Latter-day Saints about, 35—37

Book of Mormon language, 49

chromatin, 135—36

euchromatin, 201

heterochromatin, 201

codon, 137

Cohen Modal Haplotype (CMH), 83—85, 105

Lemba and, 9—10, 83—84, 271—72

cystic fibrosis,

gene studies of, 139, 143

DNA testing

forensic vs. ancestry, 71—72, 76—77

founder event, 13

genetic drift and, 170

Icelandic studies and, 89

lack of diversity in, 158—59

local colonization hypothesis and, 121

Native American populations and, 195—96

small size of in the Book of Mormon, 122

genetic drift

definition of, 145—47

differentiating between natural selection and, 154

effects of, 121, 122—23, 149—50, 156—57

genome organization, 134—39

global colonization hypothesis, 118—20

glottochronology, 2

Hardy-Weinberg assumptions, 98, 154—61

violation of by Book of Mormon peoples, 160—61

Hebrew language

parallels to Native American languages (see Uto-Azecan), 210

use of by Nephites, 209

use of in ancient America, 48—51

Thor Heyerdahl’s theory of relationships, 3

Human Genome Project, 111, 137

Icelandic DNA study, 75

Ishmael (in the Book of Mormon)

Cohen markers and, 84

as forefather of Lamanites, 37, 86, 234, 279

founder effect of, 13

as Josephite, 309

Lamanite king descendant of, 275

nonrandom mating and, 161

Ishmael (son of Abraham), 259—60

Israelite, definition of, 258—68, 297—98

Jaredites

global colonization hypothesis and, 118—19

migration of, 222—24

Latter-day Saint commentary on, 227—37, 284—85

Jew, definition of, 268—73

Kennewick man, 8, 90, 169, 172, 173—74

Lamanites

cultural legacy of, 192—93, 211, 213, 247

definition of, 37—39, 99—100, 244, 258, 274—76, 279—81

genetic signature of, 127—28

global colonization hypothesis and, 118—20

Hardy-Weinberg assumptions and, 178, 235

lineage history of, 116—17

local colonization hypothesis and, 120

Native Americans descendants of, 79—80, 83, 124, 131—32, 282—85

Lehite, definition of, 273—84

Lemba peoples, Jewish origin of, 9, 13—14, 16, 83—85, 105, 271—72

lexicostatistics, 2

local colonization hypothesis, 121—26

malaria, correspondence of with sickle-cell anemia, 148—49

meiosis, 139—40, 142, 153

mitochondrial DNA

Amerindian haplogroups in, 7, 98

composition of, 137—39

definition of, 5, 134—35

diversity in Native Americans of, 82

energy production information, 60

of Eve, 102, 168

genetic drift in, 149—50

of haplotypes of, 167

Hardy-Weinberg assumptions of, 156

of Ishmael’s wife, 23

Jewish studies using, 80, 80—82

Joseph Chang’s study of, 285—88

of lineage of Asenath, 82

of maternal lineage, 71, 137, 142—44, 153—54

minor role of in tracking ancestry, 74, 203

mutation of, 164

Native American study of, 194—95

recombination of, 163

studies using, and Y chromosomes, 75

Maya studies in, 170

Y-chromosome data, differences between, 174—75

mitosis, 139—40

molecular-clock hypothesis, 145

Mulekites

Cohen studies and, 84

genetic signature of, 75—76, 150, 151, 152, 282

Hardy-Weinberg assumptions, violation of by, 160—61

intermarriage among, 226—27, 297

migration of, 38, 56

Native American origins and, 83, 96

Native American languages, 48—50

Native American origins, 193—200

Joseph Smith on, 220—24

natural selection

blood group composition and, 3—4

definition of, 148

differentiation between genetic drift and, 154

effect of on genetic signature, 125

as violation of Hardy-Weinberg assumption of, 157

Nephites

definition of, 37—38, 231—32, 243, 274—75, 279

genetic history of, 116—17

land of, 29—31, 35

language of, 226

nonrandom mating among, 178—79

population of, 236

neutral theory

definition of, 145

deleterious mutations and, 147—48

nuclear genome

definition of, 134—35

mitosis and meiosis in, 139—40

mutation in, 164

nucleosome, 135—36

definition of, 135

nucleotide, 137

mutation in, 144—45

phenotype variants in Mesoamerican art, 57—58

Quechua, Semitic origins of, 50

recombination, 125, 138, 140

tendency to error in, 141

ribosome, 137

scientific analysis, six stages of, 1—2

Sephardic Jews

Cohen studies in, 84

percentage of Jewish population as, 95

Tay-Sachs disease and, 273

sickle-cell anemia

correspondence of, with malaria, 148—49

Tay-Sachs disease, 272—73

transoceanic migrations, 41—43

Asia to Ecuador, 54

Greenland to Vinland, 55

Indonesia to Madagascar, 54

Mesoamerican traditions of, 45—47

Venezuela to Florida, 54

universal genetic code, 134

Uto-Aztecan, Semitic origins of, 15, 50, 210

X chromosome

inheritance of, 135, 156, 201

recombination of, 163

Y chromosome

ambiguity in human data of, 172—74

Asian origins of, 194

in Asian source populations, 172

in Cohen studies, 16, 83—84, 271—72

genetic drift and, 149—50

Hardy-Weinberg assumptions and, 156—57

Jewish and Native American studies of, 85—92, 105

lack of genetic variation of, 171

of Lehi, 23

minor role of in tracking ancestry, 74

paternal lineage of, 71

studies of mitochondrial DNA and, 75