Notes and Communications:

Two Notes on Egyptian Script

Moroni, at the end of his father’s record, states, “we have written this record according to our knowledge, in the characters which are called among us the reformed Egyptian” (Mormon 9:32).1 Since the publication of this statement many suggestions have been made concerning the identification of the script.2 This note is intended to broaden the base of possibilities thus far considered by adding two hitherto unconsidered options.

Abnormal Hieratic Most discussions of reformed Egyptian deal with demotic.3 Yet “Demotic is . . . derived . . . from one of two hieratic styles used in Lower Egypt itself.”4 This other style of hieratic script, abnormal hieratic,5 has not received attention and ought at least to be considered in discussions of reformed Egyptian. Michel Malinine, who did the most work toward deciphering and publishing abnormal hieratic documents, did not like the term himself and preferred to call it “cursive thébaine tardive” (late Theban cursive)6 while Georg Möller preferred the term “späthieratische Kursive,”7 but Griffith’s term, “abnormal hieratic,” is the one that has stuck. “‘Abnormal hieratic’ represents the final stage of the development of cursive writing in the New Kingdom, which was elaborated and used in the southern half of Egypt and, in particular, at Thebes, and whose progressive changes can actually be followed, almost without interruption, from the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty until the penultimate reign of the Saite Dynasty.”8 An adaptation of hieratic characterized by “wild orthography,”9 abnormal hieratic in its second phase was used in Egypt mainly for legal and administrative purposes10 during the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Dynasties (727–548 B.C.),11 after which time it was replaced by demotic.12 Though abnormal hieratic is usually thought only to have been used in southern Egypt,13 it has now been dubiously argued that it was used in northern Egypt as well.14 Be that as it may, it is yet another modified Egyptian script available in Egypt in Lehi’s day.

Carved Hieratic It is important to realize also that demotic, like hieratic (and abnormal hieratic), was usually written with a brush on papyrus until Ptolemaic times (third century B.C.), when the Greek kalamos or reed pen began to be used.15 Hieratic from the beginning was a script adapted for brush on papyrus; for carving, hieroglyphics were used.16 After the conquest of Egypt by the Libyans ushered in the Twenty-first Dynasty,17 hieratic began to be used for carving in stone. During the Twenty-second Dynasty, hieratic stelae containing official royal decrees became common; but hieratic disappeared from official decrees with the archaizing fashion of the Saite Period (Twenty-sixth Dynasty).18 The ductus of hieratic (and demotic) that has been engraved is altered from that found on papyrus—carving tends to be more angular,19 while the brush adapts itself well to rounded forms—which makes it more difficult to read if one is not used to it. When engraved, hieratic and demotic are normally engraved in stone, but there are examples of demotic engraved into metal,20 including a bronze palette.21 Though, to my knowledge, no one has raised this objection before, it is worth noting that a tradition of engraving forms of cursive Egyptian is attested by Lehi’s day22 and that engraved forms of cursive do not necessarily coincide with those forms produced by brush and ink.

What follows are selected lists of documents in abnormal hieratic23 and carved hieratic24 and a selected bibliography of works dealing with abnormal hieratic.

Selected Chronological List of Abnormal Hieratic Documents

Document Date25 Egyptian Date
P. Berlin 3063 21–22 Dyn
Berlin “Grundbuch” 21–22 Dyn
P. Berlin 10459 21–22 Dyn
P. Ermitage 2969 21–22 Dyn
P. Vienne 12011a 21–22 Dyn
P. Vienne 12011b 21–22 Dyn
P. Vienne 12011c 21–22 Dyn
P. Vienne 12013 21–22 Dyn26
P. Brit Mus 10800 22 Dyn 14.2.3ht.8 ?27
P. Berlin 3048 833 B.C. 14 Takelot II28
P. Leiden F 1942/5.15 728 B.C. 21.2.3ht.8 Py29
Vatican (10.574) 2038 c 726 B.C. 22 Py30
Papyrus Louvre E 3228 e 707 B.C. 10.4.smw.rqy Shabaka31
Papyrus Louvre E 3228 b 706 B.C. 13.3.3ht.24 [Shabaka]32
Papyrus Louvre E 3228 d 688 B.C. 3.1.prt.10 Taharqa33
MMA 35.3.318 verso 688 B.C. 3.1.smw.11 [Taharqa]34
MMA 35.3.318 recto 686 B.C. 5.1.smw.2 [Taharqa]35
Papyrus Cairo 30884 686 B.C. 5.1.smw.16 [Taharqa]36
Papyrus Louvre E 3228 f 686 B.C. 5.3.smw.19 [Taharqa]37
Papyrus Louvre E 3228 c 685 B.C. 6.2.smw.6 Taharqa38
Papyrus Cairo 30841 686 B.C. 7.4.[x] Taharqa39
Papyrus Cairo 30886 680 B.C. 13.2.smw.29 [Taharqa]40
Papyrus Louvre 3168 [10] Taharqa41
Cairo CG 30907 + 30909 669 B.C. 22 Taharqa42
Papyrus Cairo 30878 668 B.C. 23 [Taharqa]43
Papyrus Cairo 30865 Taharqa44
Papyrus Louvre E 3228 g [Taharqa]45
Cairo CG 50012 [Taharqa]46
Papyrus Cairo 30894 [Taharqa]47
Papyrus Cairo 30906 [Taharqa]48
Papyrus Wien 12004 (4) Psammetichus I49
Louvre Stele C 101 656 B.C. 8.2.3ht Psammetichus I50
Brooklyn 47.218.3 650 B.C. 14 Psammetichus I51
Papyrus Wien 12003 647 B.C. 17.1.smw.13 Psammetichus I52
Papyrus Vatican XL 643 B.C. 21.3.3ht.12 Psammetichus I53
Papyrus Wien 12002 639 B.C. 25 Psammetichus I54
Papyrus Louvre E 2432 635 B.C. [2]9.3.smw.21 Psammetichus I55
Papyrus Turin no.(246) 2118 634 B.C. 30.4.smw.5 Psammetichus I56
Papyrus Turinno. 2118 verso 633 B.C. 31.1.smw.12 Psammetichus I57
Papyrus Turin no. (244) 2119 33–42 Psammetichus I58
Papyrus Turin no. (247) 2120 619 B.C. 45.1.prt.5 Psammetichus I59
Papyrus Turin no. (248) 2121 617 B.C. 47.3.smw.18 Psammetichus I60
Papyrus Louvre E 7858 609 B.C. 2 Necho II61
Papyrus Louvre E 7849 591 B.C. 5.4.smw.21 Psammetichus II62
Papyrus Brit Mus 10113 568 B.C. 20.2.smw.10 Apries63
Papyrus Louvre E 7861 567 B.C. 3 Amasis64
Papyrus Louvre E 7848 558 B.C. 12 Amasis65
Leiden I 431 556 B.C. 14 Amasis66
Papyrus Brit Mus 10432 555 B.C. 15 Amasis67
Papyrus Louvre E 7845 553 B.C. 17 Amasis68
Papyrus Louvre E 7846 548 B.C. 22.3.smw.5 Amasis69
Cairo CG 30657 546 B.C. 24 Amasis70
Papyrus Louvre E 3168 ? 16.1.smw.26 ?71
Papyrus Brooklyn 37.1799 E ? ? ?72

Select Annotated Bibliography on Abnormal Hieratic el-Aguizy, Ola. “About the Origins of Early Demotic in Lower Egypt.” In Life in a Multi-Cultural Society: Egypt from Cambyses to Constantine and Beyond, ed. Janet H. Johnson, 91–102. Chicago: Oriental Institute, 1992. A discussion of the development of demotic and abnormal hieratic, arguing that abnormal hieratic was also available in the north, as evidenced in Louvre C101 and several Serapeum stelae.

Bakir, Abd el-Mohsen. Slavery in Pharaonic Egypt. Cairo: Institut français d’archéologie orientale, 1952. The standard discussion of Egyptian slavery, it is also the first publication of several abnormal hieratic slave transactions.

Cerny, Jaroslav. “The Abnormal-hieratic Tablet Leiden I 431.” In Studies Presented to F. Ll. Griffith, 46–56. London: Egypt Exploration Society, 1932). Publication of an abnormal hieratic writing tablet.

Cerny, Jaroslav, and Richard A. Parker. “An Abnormal Hieratic Tablet.” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 57 (1971): 127–31. The publication of a tablet dated archaeologically to the reign of Taharqa containing two sales and a discussion of grain measures in Egypt at this period of time.

Edwards, I. E. S. “Bill of Sale for a Set of Ushabtis.” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 57 (1971): 120–24. One of the few publications of an abnormal hieratic document from the first period of abnormal hieratic.

Griffith, F. Ll. “The Earliest Egyptian Marriage Contracts.” Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 31 (1909): 212–20. The publication of the transcriptions of two marriage contracts in abnormal hieratic. Griffith had the uncanny ability to crack texts that no one else could; he here demonstrates it by the first transcription of abnormal hieratic texts.

Griffith, F. Ll. “An Early Contract Papyrus in the Vatican.” Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 32 (1910): 5–10. The publication of an abnormal hieratic contract.

Hughes, George R. Saite Demotic Land Leases, 9–17. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952. The publication of an abnormal hieratic land lease among a collection of demotic land leases.

Jasnow, Richard, and Günther Vittmann. “An Abnormal Hieratic Letter to the Dead (P. Brooklyn 37.1799 E).” Enchoria 19/20 (1992–93): 23–43. The publication of an abnormal hieratic letter to the dead.73

Lüddeckens, Erich. Ägyptische Eheverträge, 14–17. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1960. A publication of many marriage contracts, most in demotic, but two in abnormal hieratic.

Malinine, Michel. “Une affaire conçernant un partage (Pap. Vienne D 12003 et D 12004).” Revue d’Égyptologie 25 (1973): 192–208. Publication of two cessions in abnormal hieratic.

Malinine, Michel. Choix des textes juridiques en hiératique anormal et en démotique. 2 vols. vol. 1: Paris: Champion, 1953; vol. 2: Cairo: Institut français d’archéologie orientale, 1983. A collection of legal texts in abnormal hieratic and demotic arranged chronologically according to subject. Volume 1 contains the transliteration, translations, and commentary, as well as an introduction to abnormal hieratic, while volume 2 contains hieroglyphic transcriptions and some plates.

Malinine, Michel. “Deux documents égyptiens relatifs au dépôt (P. Louvre E. 7861 et P. Caire 30657).” Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts Abteilung Kairo 16 (1958): 219–29. Publication of two legal documents in abnormal hieratic dealing with deposits.

Malinine, Michel. “L’hiératique anormal.” In Textes et langages de l’Égypte pharaonique: Cent cinquante années de recherches 1822–1972: Hommage î Jean-François Champollion, 2 vols., 1:31–35. Cairo: Institute Français d’Archéologie Orientale, 1973. An historical overview of the scholarship on abnormal hieratic.

Malinine, Michel. “Une jugement rendu î Thèbes sous la XXVe dynastie (pap. Louvre E. 3228c).” Revue d’Egyptologie 6 (1951): 157–78. Publication of a court case over the ownership of a slave in abnormal hieratic, with an analysis of the legal processes involved in the slave trade in Egypt.

Malinine, Michel. “Transcriptions hiéroglyphiques de quatre textes du Musée du Louvre écrits en hiératique anormal.” Revue d’Egyptologie 34 (1982–83): 93–100. The hieroglyphic transcription of four abnormal hieratic documents in the Louvre.

Malinine, Michel. “Trois documents de l’époque d’Amasis relatifs au louage de terres.” Revue d’Égyptologie 8 (1951): 127–50. Publication of three documents concerning the rental of parcels of land, one in early cursive demotic, one in abnormal hieratic, and one in early demotic.

Malinine, Michel. “Une vente d’esclave î l’époque de Psammétique Ier (Papyrus du Vatican 10574, en hiératique «anormal»). Revue d’Egyptologie 5 (1946): 119–31. A publication of an abnormal hieratic sale of a slave.

Malinine, Michel. “Vente de tombes î l’époque saïte.” Revue d’Egyptologie 27 (1975): 164–74. The publication of two Saite period stelae containing the sale of tombs, one of which (Louvre C101) was thought to be in abnormal hieratic, which Malinine denies.

Malinine, Michel, Georges Posener, and Jean Vercoutter. Catalogue des stèles du Sérapéum de Memphis, 2 vols. (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1968). Publication of 252 stelae from the Serapeum of Memphis of which six (nos. 30, 33, 42, 58, 159, and 160) have been argued to have abnormal hieratic.

Möller, Georg. Zwei ägyptische Eheverträge aus vorsaïtischer Zeit. Berlin: Königliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1918. General overview of all Egyptian marriage documents, but based on two abnormal hieratic documents, as the earliest examples of the genre.

Parker, Richard A. “King Py, a Historical Problem.” Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 93 (1966): 111–14. The discussion of the date in P. Leiden F 1942/5.15. This article forced a rereading of Shabako’s predecessor’s name from Pianchi/Piankhy to Py or Piye.

Parker, Richard A. A Saite Oracle Papyrus from Thebes in the Brooklyn Museum (Providence: Brown University Press, 1962), 1–34. Publication of an oracle papyrus in abnormal hieratic, with an excursus by Jaroslav Cerny on oracles that is the standard work on ancient Egyptian oracles.

Pernigotti, Sergio. “Un nuovo testo giuridico in ieratico «anormale».” Bulletin de l’institut français d’archéologie orientale 75 (1975): 73–95. The publication of an abnormal hieratic will.

Spiegelberg, Wilhelm. Die demotischen Denkm ler, 3 vols. Leipzig: Druglin, 1904; Strassburg: Fischbach, 1906; Strassburg: Schauberg, 1908; Berlin: Reichsdruckerei, 1932. Part of the Catalogue général des antiquités égyptiennes du Musée du Caire, this important corpus of demotic material includes several papyri in abnormal hieratic. (There are three volumes, volume two comes in two parts; all parts have been published by different publishers.)

Thissen, Heinz-Josef. “Chronologie der frühdemotischen Papyri.” Enchoria 10 (1980): 105–25. A Chronology of all 186 early demotic papyri including 42 abonormal hieratic documents that had been published to that point.

Vleeming, Sven P. “The Sale of a Slave in the Time of Pharaoh Py.” Ouheidkundige mededelingen uit het Rijksmuseum van Oudheden te Leiden 40 (1980): 1–17. The publication of what some consider to be the earliest abnormal hieratic document, P. Leiden F 1942/5.15, also including an overview of all abnormal hieratic documents published to that date.

 

Selected Chronological List of Carved Hieratic Documents

 

Monument Date74
Brit Mus 138 21st Dyn?75
Strasbourg 1588 22nd Dyn76
Caves IFAO n de séquestre 14456 22nd Dyn77
Leningrad Ermitage 5630 c. 935 B.C. (year 10 of Sheshonq I)78
New York MMA 10.176.42 c. 918 B.C. (year 6 of Osorkon I)79
Chicago OIM 10511 823 B.C. (year 3 of Sheshonq III)80
Glyptothèque Ny-Carlsberg E. 917 818–793 B.C. (reign of Pedubast I)81
Louvre E 20905 808 B.C. (year 18 of Sheshonq III)82
Brooklyn Mus 67–118 804 B.C. (year 22 of Sheshonq III)83
Berlin 7344 798 B.C. (year 28 of Sheshonq III)84
Strasbourg 1379 796 B.C. (year 30 of Sheshonq III)85
Moscow I 1a 5647 795 B.C. (year 31 of Sheshonq III)86
Cairo 21/3/25/15 794 B.C. (year 32 of Sheshonq III)87
location unknown 784 B.C. (year 21 of Iuput I)88
Moscow I 1a 5648 c. 825–773 B.C. (Sheshonq III)89
British Mus 73965 761 B.C. (year 7 of Sheshonq V)90
location unknown 760 B.C. (year 8 of Sheshonq V)91
Brooklyn Mus 67–119 753 B.C. (year 15 of Sheshonq V)92
Cairo JdE 30972 749 B.C. (year 19 of Sheshonq V)93
Farouk collection 732 B.C. (year 36 of Sheshonq V)94
Cairo JdE 45549 788 or 730 B.C. (year 38 of unnamed king, Sheshonq III, V?)95
Cairo JdE 85647 c. 767–730 B.C. (Sheshonq V)96
Louvre IM 3305 22nd Dyn?97
Louvre IM 19 22nd Dyn?98
Cairo 27/6/24/3 22nd Dyn?99
Ashmolean Mus 1894–107b 724 B.C. (year 24 of Py)100
Athens G3, 409 720 B.C. (year 8 of Tefnakht)101
Stela Zagazig 714 B.C. (year 3 of Shabako)102
New York MMA 55.144.6 711 B.C. (year 6 of Shabako)103
Cairo JdE 28731 (year 6 of unnamed king)104
Stela Suez 646 B.C. (year 19 of Psammetichus I)105
Cairo CG 31086 Saite/Persian106
Cairo CG 31094 (JdE 27145) Ptolemaic/Roman?107

 

Notes

1. Moroni explicitly says that the term reformed Egyptian refers to the script rather than the language. I have dealt with the distinction between language and script in John Gee, “La Trahison des Clercs: On the Language and Translation of the Book of Mormon,” Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 6/1 (1994): 79–82, 94–99.

2. A convenient summary of the suggestions is found in William J. Hamblin, “Reformed Eyptian” (Provo, UT: FARMS, 1995).

3. Hugh Nibley, Lehi in the Desert, The World of the Jaredites, There Were Jaredites (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1988), 15; Stephen E. Thompson, review of Southwestern American Indian Rock Art and the Book of Mormon, by James R. Harris, Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 4 (1992): 75–76.

4. Ola el-Aguizy, “About the Origins of Early Demotic in Lower Egypt,” in Life in a Multi-Cultural Society: Egypt from Cambyses to Constantine and Beyond, ed. Janet H. Johnson (Chicago: Oriental Institute, 1992), 94.

5. So named by F. Ll. Griffith, see Jaroslav Cerny, “The Abnormal-hieratic Tablet Leiden I 431,” in Studies Presented to F. Ll. Griffith (London: Egypt Exploration Society, 1932), 46; Michel Malinine, Choix des textes juridiques en hiératique anormal et en démotique, 2 vols. (vol. 1: Paris: Champion, 1953; vol. 2: Cairo: Institut français d’archéologie orientale, 1983), 1:iv.

6. Michel Malinine, “Une affaire conçernant un partage (Pap. Vienne D 12003 et D 12004),” Revue d’Égyptologie 25 (1973): 192.

7. Quoted in Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” in Textes et langages de l’Égypte pharaonique: Cent cinquante ann es de recherches 1822–1972: Hommage î Jean-François Champollion, 2 vols. (Cairo: Institute Français d’Archéologie Orientale, 1973), 1:31.

8. Malinine, Choix des textes juridiques, 1:xiv.

9. Georg Möller, Hieratische Paläographie: Die aegyptische Buchschrift in ihrer Entwicklung von der fünften Dynastie bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit, 3 vols. (Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1927–36), 3:1.

10. Malinine, Choix des textes juridiques, 1:iv. For the administrative purposes of early demotic, see ibid., 1:xvi.

11. Malinine, Choix des textes juridiques, 1:ix; Sven P. Vleeming, “The Sale of a Slave in the Time of Pharaoh Py,” Oudheidkundige mededelingen uit het Rijksmuseum van Oudheden te Leiden 40 (1980): 4, 13 n. 31. No trace remained by the second year of Alexander the Great (331 B.C.); see Richard Jasnow, “The Hieratic Wooden Tablet Varille,” in For His Ka: Essays Offered in Memory of Klaus Baer, ed. David P. Silverman (Chicago: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1994), 100.

12. Malinine, Choix des textes juridiques, 1:xix-xxi.

13. Ibid., 1:ix-xiv; Michel Malinine, “Vente de tombes î l’époque saïte,” Revue d’Egyptologie 27 (1975): 169.

14. El-Aguizy, “About the Origins of Early Demotic,” 91–94.

15. Willy Clarysse, “Egyptian Scribes Writing Greek,” Chronique d’Egypte 68/135–36 (1993): 188–89, 192–93.

16. See Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, trans. Ian Shaw (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992), 33–34.

17. The importance of this for Old Testament history can hardly be understated. Without the problems caused by its western and southern flanks (Libya and Nubia), Egypt would certainly have pursued its traditional course of dominating the Levantine littoral, which would not have allowed either a united or a divided Israelite monarchy; the Israelites would have forever been fighting the Egyptians rather than the Philistines. For Egypt’s foreign policy, see Donald B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), a book unfortunately marred by the author’s obvious hostility toward the Bible and the religions that sprang therefrom.

18. For a recent study of the archaizing tendency of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty, see Peter Der Manuelian, Living in the Past: Studies in Archaism of the Egyptian Twenty-sixth Dynasty (London: Kegan Paul International, 1994). This tendency is normally noted in the art of the period; see Gay Robins, Proportion and Style in Ancient Egyptian Art (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994), 256–57. Although the archaizing tendency of art is normally associated with the Twenty-sixth Dynasty, it started earlier in the Twenty-fifth Dynasty; ibid., 160; W. Stevenson Smith, The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt, rev. William Kelly Simpson (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981), 408.

19. Greek epigraphers used special tools in carving circular letters; see A. E. Raubitschek, “The Mechanical Engraving of Circular Letters,” American Journal of Archaeology 55 (1951): 343–44; C. G. Higgins and W. Kendrick Pritchett, “Engraving Techniques in Attic Epigraphy,” American Journal of Archaeology 69/4 (1965): 369–70, plates 97, 99–100.

20. Adel Farid, “Sieben Metallgefäße mit demotischen Inschriften aus Kairo und Paris,” Revue d’Égyptologie 45 (1994): 117–32 and plates XIII-XVII.

21. Cairo CG 30691 (Roman period), in Spiegelberg, Die demotischen Denkmäler, 1:80–82 and Tafel XXVI. This document is a temple inventory; for other examples see Jasnow, “The Hieratic Wooden Tablet Varille,” 99–112, and bibliography in p. 100 n. 10.

22. Möller, Hieratische Paläographie, 3:8.

23. In 1953 Malinine knew of about 150 documents in early demotic and abnormal hieratic, of which about thirty at most had been published; Malinine, Choix des textes juridiques, 1:iv. He said there were about forty texts in abnormal hieratic; ibid., 1:ix.

24. This does not include incised hieratic ostraca that came to my attention too late to be included.

25. Conversion of the dates to our calendar here, and generally through the article follow those of Kenneth A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 B.C.), 2nd ed. (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1986). The format for the Egyptian date where given is taken from the Egyptian date formula of the documents themselves, using Egyptian format. Thus the date 17.1.smw.13 Psammetichus I means: year 17, first month of harvest (summer), day 13 of Psammetichus I. Restorations are in brackets.

26. First eight items unpublished, see Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 1:32.

27. I. E. S. Edwards, “Bill of Sale for a Set of Ushabtis,” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 57 (1971): 120-24; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 35. Almost any king of the Twenty-first Dynasty could fit this date.

28. Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 34; Georg Möller, Zwei ägyptische Eheverträge aus vorsaïtischer Zeit (Berlin: Königliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1918), 1–16 and Tafel I–II.

29. Vleeming, “The Sale of a Slave,” 1–17. This was the actual document that led to the rereading of the name Piankhy/Pianchi as Py; see Richard A. Parker, “King Py, a Historical Problem,” Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 93 (1966): 111–14; Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 370 nn. 730–31, 582 §524; Heinz-Josef Thissen, “Chronologie der früdemotischen Papyri,” Enchoria 10 (1980): 106.

30. Michel Malinine, “Une vente d’esclave î l’époque de Psammétique Ier (papyrus de Vatican 10574, en hiératique «anormal»),” Revue d’Egyptologie 5 (1946): 119–31; Parker, “King Py, a Historical Problem,” 111–14; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 33, 34; Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 370 n. 731, 582 § 524; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 4.

31. Malinine, Choix des textes juridiques, 1:35–42, 2:14–17, plate V; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 32, 34; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 4; Abd el-Mohsen Bakir, Slavery in Pharaonic Egypt (Cairo: Institut français d’archéologie orientale, 1952), 91–92, plates xii–xiv.

32. Malinine, Choix des textes juridiques, 1:3–14, 2:1–5, plates I-II; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 34; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 4.

33. Malinine, Choix des textes juridiques, 1:43–49, 2:17–20, plate VI; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 34; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 4; Bakir, Slavery in Pharaonic Egypt, plates v–vii (misidentified as Louvre E3228a).

34. Jaroslav Cerny and Richard A. Parker, “An Abnormal Hieratic Tablet,” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 57 (1971): 127–31, plate 35; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 35; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 4.

35. Cerny and Parker, “An Abnormal Hieratic Tablet,” 127–31, plate 35; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 35; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 4.

36. Wilhelm Spiegelberg, Die demotischen Denkmäler, 3 vols. (Leipzig: Druglin, 1904; Strassburg: Fischbach, 1906; Strassburg: Schauberg, 1908; Berlin: Reichsdruckerei, 1932), 2.1:194, 2.2:plate LXVII.

37. Michel Malinine, “Transcriptions hiéroglyphiques de quatre textes du Musée du Louvre écrits en hiératique anormal,” Revue d’Egyptologie 34 (1982–83): 94–95 and plate 4; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 33; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 4; Bakir, Slavery in Pharaonic Egypt, plates xv–xvi.

38. Michel Malinine, “Une jugement rendu î Thèbes sous la XXVe dynastie (pap. Louvre E. 3228c),” Revue d’Egyptologie 6 (1951): 157–78; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 33, 34; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 4; Bakir, Slavery in Pharaonic Egypt, plates viii–xi..

39. Spiegelberg, Demotischen Denkmäler, 2.1:190; 2.2:plate LXV.

40. Ibid., 2.1:194; 2.2:plate LXVII.

41. Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 32–33 (dating to year 10 of Taharqa); Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 4.

42. Spiegelberg, Demotischen Denkmäler, 2.1:196, 2.2:plate LXIX; Lüddeckens, Ägyptische Eheverträge, 12-13; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 34 (dating to year 12? of Taharqa); Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 5 (dating to year 22? of Taharqa); Thissen, “Frühdemotische Papyri,” 107 (dating to year 13 of Taharqa). Möller, Zwei ägyptische Eheverträge, 7–16 and Tafel III.

43. Spiegelberg, Demotischen Denkmäler, 2.1:194, 2:2:plate LXVII; Thissen, “Frühdemotische Papyri,” 107–8 (perhaps date to Psammetichus I).

44. Spiegelberg, Demotischen Denkmäler, 2.1:190; 2.2:plate LXV; Thissen, “Frühdemotische Papyri,” 107.

45. Malinine, “Quatre textes du Musée du Louvre,” 96–97 and plate 5.

46. Spiegelberg, Demotischen Denkmäler, 2.1:329–32, 2.2:plate CXLIII.

47. Ibid., 2.1:195; 2.2:plate LXVIII.

48. Ibid., 2.1:196; 2.2:plate LXVIII; Thissen, “Frühdemotische Papyri,” 107.

49. Malinine, “Une affaire conçernant un partage,” 92–208; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 5.

50. Malinine, “Vente de tombes î l’époque Saïte,” 168–73; el-Aguizy, “About the Origins of Early Demotic,” 102, plate 10.4.

51. Richard A. Parker, A Saite Oracle Papyrus from Thebes in the Brooklyn Museum (Providence: Brown University Press, 1962), 1–34; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 35; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 5.

52. Malinine, “Une affaire conçernant un partage,” 192–208; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 5.

53. F. Ll. Griffith, “An Early Contract Papyrus in the Vatican,” Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 32 (1910): 5–10.

54. Parker, Saite Oracle Papyrus, 24; Thissen, “Frühdemotische Papyri,” 108.

55. Malinine, Choix des textes juridiques, 1:102–108, 2:48–50, plate XIV; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 33 (dating to year 19 of Psammetichus I), 35; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 5 (dating to year 29 of Psammetichus I).

56. Malinine, Choix des textes juridiques, 1:56–71, 2:22–32; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 33, 34; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 5.

57. Sergio Pernigotti, “Un nuovo testo giuridico in ieratico «anormale»,” Bulletin de l’institut français d’archéologie orientale 75 (1975): 73–95.

58. Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 33; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 5.

59. Malinine, Choix des textes juridiques, 1:72–84, 2:33–41, Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 32–33, 34; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 5.

60. Malinine, Choix des textes juridiques, 1:117–124, 2:53–55; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 32–33, 35; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 5.

61. Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 33; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 5.

62. F. Ll. Griffith, “The Earliest Egyptian Marriage Contracts,” Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 31 (1909): 212–20; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 33; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 5–6.

63. Malinine, Choix des textes juridiques, 1:15é19, 2:5é6; Nathaniel J. Reich, Papyri jurisitischen Inhalts in hieratischen und demotischen Schrift aus dem British Museum (Vienna: Hölder, 1914), 5–8; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 34, 35; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 6.

64. Michel Malinine, “Deux documents égyptiens relatifs au dépôt (P. Louvre E. 7861 et P. Caire 30657),” Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts Abteilung Kairo 16 (1958): 219–29; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 33, 35; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 6.

65. Thissen, “Frühdemotische Papyri,” 110.

66. Cerny, “The Abnormal-hieratic Tablet Leiden I 431,” 46–56 (dating to Taharqa); Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 34 (dating to Amasis); Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 6.

67. George R. Hughes, Saite Demotic Land Leases (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952), 9–17; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 34; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 6.

68. Michel Malinine, “Trois documents de l’époque d’Amasis relatifs au louage de terres,” Revue d’Égyptologie 8 (1951): 135–41. Thissen, “Frühdemotische Papyri,” 111, does not consider this to be abnormal hieratic.

69. Griffith, “Earliest Egyptian Marriage Contracts,” 212–20; Erich Lüddeckens, Ägyptische Eheverträge (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1960), 14–17; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 33 (dating to year 26); Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 6 (dating to year 22); Malinine, “Quatre Textes du Musée du Louvre,” 99–100 and plate 7.

70. Spiegelberg, Demotischen Denkmäler, 2.1:95, 2.2:plate XLVIII; Malinine, “Deux documents égyptiens,” 219–29; Malinine, “L’hiératique anormal,” 35; Vleeming, “Sale of a Slave,” 6.

71. Malinine, “Quatre textes du Musée du Louvre,” 98 and plate 6.

72. Richard Jasnow and Günther Vittmann, “An Abnormal Hieratic Letter to the Dead (P. Brooklyn 37.1799 E),” Enchoria 19/20 (1992–93): 23–43.

73. For this genre of texts, see Alan H. Gardiner and Kurt Sethe, Egyptian Letters to the Dead Mainly from the Old and Middle Kingdom (London: Egypt Exploration Society, 1928); Alan H. Gardiner, “A New Letter to the Dead,” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 16 (1930): 19–22; Siegfried Schott, “Die Bitte um ein Kind auf einer Grabfigur des frühen mittleren Reiches,” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 16 (1930): 23 (unrecognized by editor); Michel Malinine, “Une lettre démotique î Aménothés fils de Hapou,” Revue d’Égyptologie 14 (1962): 37–43; Edward F. Wente, “A Misplaced Letter to the Dead,” Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 6/7 (1975–76): 595–600; Robert K. Ritner, The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice (Chicago: Oriental Institute, 1993), 180–83 (with bibliography).

74. Dates based on Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 470–72.

75. Georg Möller, Hieratische Lesestücke für den akademischen Gebrauch, 3 vols. (Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1910–27), 3:33–34. The text, according to Möller, is a Twenty-first Dynasty forgery; it purports to be from the Middle Kingdom.

76. Dimitri Meeks, “Les donations aux temples dans l’Égypte du Ier millénaire avant J.-C.,” in State and Temple Economy in the Ancient Near East, ed. Edward Lipinski, 2 vols. (Leuven: Departement Oriëntalistiek, 1979), 2:665 # 22.0.6.

77. Meeks, “Les donations aux temples,” 666 # 22.0.30.

78. Ibid., 666 # 22.1.10; Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 291 n. 278.

79. MMA 10.176.42 (unpublished), cited in Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 303 n. 323, and 304 n. 334; Meeks, “Les donations aux temples,” 666 # 22.2.6.

80. Meeks, “Les donations aux temples,” 668 # 22.8.3.

81. Otto Koefoed-Petersen, Recueil des insciprtions hieroglyphiques de la glypotothèque ny Carlsberg (Brussels: Foundation Égyptologique reine Élisabeth, 1936), plate V; Jean Yoyotte, “Un étrange titre d’epoque libyenne,” Bulletin de l’institut français d’archéologie orientale 58 (1959): 97; Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 339–40 n. 536.

82. Ibid., 668 # 22.8.18.

83. Ibid., 668 # 22.8.22.

84. Günther Roeder, Aegyptische Inschriften aus den Königlichen Museen zu Berlin, 3 vols. (Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1913) 2:209; Meeks, “Les donations aux temples,” 669 # 22.8.28; Yoyotte, “Un étrange titre d’epoque libyenne,” 98.

85. Meeks, “Les donations aux temples,” 669 # 22.8.30.

86. Ibid., 669 # 22.8.31; Yoyotte, “Un étrange titre d’epoque libyenne,” 97.

87. Meeks, “Les donations aux temples,” 669 # 22.8.32; Yoyotte, “Un étrange titre d’epoque libyenne,” 99.

88. Meeks, “Les donations aux temples,” 671 # 23.2.21.

89. Ibid., 681 # B 4.

90. Stephen Quirke and Jeffrey Spencer, The British Museum Book of Ancient Egypt (London: Thames and Hudson, 1992), 201; Ian Shaw and Paul Nicholson, The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt (London: British Museum, 1995), 162.

91. Meek, “Les donations aux temples,” 670 # 22.10.8.

92. Ibid., 670 # 22.10.15; Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period, 351 n. 609.

93. W. Max Müller, Egyptological Researches, 3 vols. (Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1906–20), 1:54–55, plate 18; Meeks, “Les donations aux temples,” 670 # 22.10.19; for the correct attribution of the ruler, see Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 349–51 esp. 351 n. 610.

94. Meeks, “Les donations aux temples,” 670 # 22.10.36.

95. Ibid., 681 # B 3.

96. Ibid., 669 # 22.10.00a.

97. Malinine, Posener, and Vercoutter, Catalogue des Stèles du Sérapéum de Memphis, 1:55; 2:plate XIX 61.

98. Ibid., 1:87, 2:plate XXV 87.

99. Bakir, Slavery in Pharaonic Egypt, plates ii–iv.

100. Meeks, “Les donations aux temples,” 672 # 23.XV.24.

101. Ibid., 672 # 24.1.8; Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period, 372 n. 741.

102. Meeks, “Les donations aux temples,” 673 # 25.4.3; Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period, 379 n. 772.

103. Unpublished, references in Meeks, “Les donations aux temples,” 673 # 25.4.6; Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period, 379 n. 773.

104. Meeks, “Les donations aux temples,” 674 # 26.0.6.

105. Ibid., 674 # 26.1.19.

106. Spiegelberg, Demotischen Denkmäler, 1:12, Tafel I.

107. Ibid., 1:25, Tafel V.