The Dead Sea Scrolls:
Select Publications by Latter-day Saint Scholars

This select bibliography is arranged alphabetically by author (and occasionally by title when no author is given). Multiple works by an author are listed alphabetically by title. A book edited by at least one Latter-day Saint appears as a book entry, alphabetized by the surname of the lead editor. Individual articles by Latter-day Saints from such an edited book appear under the author’s name with a shortened citation of the book.

Anderson, Richard L. Review of The Dead Sea Scrolls, 1947–69, by Edmund Wilson. BYU Studies 10/1

(1969): 120–24.

Bradford, M. Gerald. “About the Scrolls.” In Bradford, Ancient Scrolls from the Dead Sea, 3–12.

———, ed. Ancient Scrolls from the Dead Sea. Provo, UT: FARMS, 1997.

Brown, S. Kent. “The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Mormon Perspective.” BYU Studies 23/1 (1983): 49–66.

———. “Extracanonical Literature: The Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament.” In A Symposium on the New Testament, 45–49. Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1980.

———. Review of LDS Perspectives on the Dead Sea Scrolls, edited by Donald W. Parry and Dana M. Pike. FARMS Review of Books 10/2 (1998): 141–46.

Brown, S. Kent, and C. Wilfred Griggs. “The Messiah and the Manuscripts: What Do Recently Discovered Documents Tell Us about Jesus?” Ensign, September 1974, 68–73.

“BYU Hosts Masada, Dead Sea Scrolls Exhibit.” Ensign, March 1997, 76–77.

“BYU Projects Aid Dead Sea Scrolls Studies.” Ensign, December 1995, 70–71.

Cloward, Robert A. “Dead Sea Scrolls: LDS Perspective.” In Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 1:363–64. New York: Macmillan, 1992.

Critchlow, William J., Jr. “The Gospel Is Eternal: A New Witness to the Fact,” Improvement Era, December 1966, 1109–11.

Cross, Frank Moore, Donald W. Parry, and Richard J. Saley. “4QpapUnclassified Fragments (verso of 4QSama) (Pl. XXIII).” In Cross et al., Qumran Cave 4, XII, 217.

———. “4QSama (Pls. I–XXII).” In Cross et al., Qumran Cave 4, XII, 1–216.

———. “4QSamb (Pls. XXIV–XXV).” In Cross et al., Qumran Cave 4, XII, 219–46.

Cross, Frank Moore, Donald W. Parry, Richard J. Saley, and Eugene Ulrich. Qumran Cave 4, XII: 1–2 Samuel. DJD XVII. Oxford: Clarendon, 2005.

Falk, Daniel K., Sarianna Metso, Donald W. Parry, and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, eds. Qumran Cave 1 Revisited: Texts from Cave 1 Sixty Years after Their Discovery: Proceedings of the Sixth Meeting of the IOQS in Ljubljana. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

García Martínez, Florentino, and Donald W. Parry. A Bibliography of the Finds in the Desert of Judah, 1970–1995: Arranged by Author with Citation and Subject Indexes. Leiden: Brill, 1996.

Geilman, David K. “1QpHab Habakkuk Pesher,” “4Q31 Deuteronomy,” “4Q2 Genesisb,” “4Q27 Numbersb,” “3Q15 Copper Scroll,” “5/6Hev 44 Bar Kokhba.” In Bradford, Ancient Scrolls from the Dead Sea, 34, 37–39.

Holzapfel, Richard Neitzel, Donald W. Parry, Dana M. Pike, and David Rolph Seely. “The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Roundtable Discussion Celebrating the Sixtieth Anniversary of Their Discovery, Part 1.” Religious Educator 8/3 (2007): 127–46; “Part 2.” Religious Educator 9/2 (2008): 83–97.

Hopkin, Shon. “The Psalm 22:16 Controversy: New Evidence from the Dead Sea Scrolls.” BYU Studies 44/2 (2005): 161–72.

Ludlow, Jared W. “What Are the ‘Qdôšê Qdôšîm’ in ‘The Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice’?” Journal of Associated Graduates in Near Eastern Studies 7/2 (1997): 42–51.

Lundquist, John M. “The Value of New Textual Sources to the King James Bible.” Ensign, August 1983, 42–47.

Lyon, Michael P. “The Art of the Scribe.” In Bradford, Ancient Scrolls from the Dead Sea, 40–44.

Matthews, Robert J. “Why Do Book of Mormon Selections from Isaiah Parallel the King James Version and Not the Dead Sea Scrolls Text?” Ensign, March 1980, 40.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Apocryphal Writings and Teachings of the Dead Sea Scrolls.” In Temple and Cosmos, 264–335. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1992.

———. “Checking on Long-Forgotten Lore.” In Since Cumorah, 173–210. Salt Lake City: Deseret News and FARMS, 1988.

———. “Churches in the Wilderness.” In The Prophetic Book of Mormon, 289–327. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1989.

———. “The Dead Sea Scrolls: Some Questions and Answers.” In Old Testament and Related Studies, 245–51. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1986.

———. “From the Dead Sea Scrolls (1QS).” In Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri: An Egyptian Endowment, 461–75. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 2005.

———. “More Voices from the Dust.” In Old Testament and Related Studies, 239–44. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1986.

———. “New Approaches to Book of Mormon Study.” In The Prophetic Book of Mormon, 54–126. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1989.

———. “Prophets in the Wilderness.” In Since Cumorah, 264–90. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1988.

———. “Qumran and the Waters of Mormon.” In An Approach to the Book of Mormon, 183–93. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1988.

———. “Rediscovery of the Apocrypha and the Book of Mormon.” In Temple and Cosmos, 212–63. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1992.

———. Review of Bar-Kochba: The Rediscovery of the Legendary Hero of the Last Jewish Revolt against Imperial Rome, by Yigael Yadin. BYU Studies 14/1 (1973): 116–26.

———. “A Strange Order of Battle.” In An Approach to the Book of Mormon, 209–21. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1988.

———. “A Strange Thing in the Land.” In Enoch the Prophet, 91–301. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1986.

———. “Unrolling the Scrolls—Some Forgotten Witnesses.” In Old Testament and Related Studies, 115–70. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1986.

———. “Unwelcome Voices from the Dust.” In An Approach to the Book of Mormon, 171–82. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1988.

Parry, Donald W. “1QIsaa and Ketib-Qere: Readings of the Masoretic Type Texts.” In Falk et al., Qumran Cave 1 Revisited, 17–32.

———. “4QSama (4Q51): A Preliminary Edition of 1 Samuel 25:3–31:4.” In Parry and Ulrich, Provo International Conference, 58–71.

———. “5/6Hev 46 Bar Kokhba,” “1QIsaa The Great Isaiah Scroll,” “1QS Rule of the Community,” “11Q10 Targum of Job,” and “11Q19 Temple Scroll.” In Bradford, Ancient Scrolls from the Dead Sea, 26, 32–33, 35–36.

———. “4QSama and the Royal Song of Thanksgiving (2 Sam 22//Ps 18).” In Sapiential Liturgical and Poetical Texts from Qumran: Proceedings of the Third Meeting of the International Organization Qumran Studies, Oslo 1998, Published in Memory of Maurice Baillet, edited by Daniel K. Falk, Florentino García-Martínez, and Eileen M. Schuller, 146–59. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

———. “4QSama and the Tetragrammaton.” In Parry and Ricks, Current Research, 106–25.

———. “4QSama, the Canon, and the Community of Lay Readers.” In The Bible and the Dead Sea, Scrolls edited by James H. Charlesworth, 1:167–82. Baylor University Press: 2006.

———. “The Aftermath of Abner’s Murder.” Textus 20 (2000): 83–96.

———. “The Challenge of 4QSama and the Canon.” In The Hebrew Bible and Qumran, edited by James H. Charlesworth, 219–39. Richland Hills, TX: BIBAL Press, 2000.

———. “The Contribution of the Dead Sea Scrolls to Biblical Understanding.” In Parry and Pike, LDS Perspectives on the Dead Sea Scrolls, 47–71.

———. “The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible.” Humanities at BYU (Spring 2009): 8–12.

———. “Hannah in the Presence of the Lord.” In Archaeology of the Books of Samuel: The Entangling of the Textual and Literary History, edited by Philippe Hugo and Adrian Schenker, 53–73. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

———. “How Many Vessels? An Examination of MT 1 Sam 2:14//4QSama 1 Sam 2:16.” In Studies in the Hebrew Bible, Qumran, and the Septuagint: Presented to Eugene Ulrich, edited by Peter W. Flint, Emanuel Tov, and James C. VanderKam, 84–95. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

———. “Linguistic Profile of the Nonbiblical Qumran Texts: A Multidimensional Approach.” In From 4QMMT to Resurrection: Melanges qumraniens en hommage à Émile Puech, edited by Florentino García-Martínez, Annette Steudel, and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, 217–41. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

———. “More Fragments from 4QSama (4Q51): A Preliminary Edition of 1 Samuel 14:24–24:22.” In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery: Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20–25, 1997, edited by Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov, and James C. VanderKam, 19–29. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in Cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

———. “Notes on Divine Name Avoidance in Scriptural Units of the Legal Texts of Qumran.” In Legal Texts and Legal Issues: Proceedings of the Second Meeting of the International Organization for Qumran Studies, Cambridge, 1995: Published in Honour of Joseph M. Baumgarten, edited by Moshe J. Bernstein, Florentino García-Martínez, and John Kampen, 437–49. Leiden: Brill, 1997.

———. “Retelling Samuel: Echoes of the Books of Samuel in the Dead Sea Scrolls.” Revue de Qumran 17/65–68 (1996): 293–306.

———. Review of Reconstructing Biblical Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Method Applied to the Reconstruction of 4QSama, by Edward D. Herbert. BASOR 314 (1999): 84.

———. Review of Scribal Practices and Approaches Reflected in the Texts Found in the Judean Desert, by Emanuel Tov. Dead Sea Discoveries 14/3 (2007): 365–67.

———. “The Textual Character of the Unique Readings of 4QSama (4Q51).” In Flores Florentino: Dead Sea Scrolls and Other Early Jewish Studies in Honour of Florentino García-Martínez, edited by Anthony Hilhorst, Emile Puech, and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, 163–82. Leiden: Brill, 2007.

———. “Unique Readings in 4QSama.” In The Bible as Book: The Hebrew Bible and the Judaean Desert Discoveries, edited by Edward D. Herbert and Emanuel Tov, 209–19. London: The British Library and Oak Knoll Press in Association with The Scriptorium: Center for Christian Antiquities, 2002.

———. “Verbal Imperative Variations in Qumran Legal Texts and Other Registers.” In Zaphenath-Paneah: Lingustic Studies Presented to Elisha Qimron on the Occasion of His Sixty-Fifth Birthday, edited by Daniel Sivan, David Talshir, and Chaim Cohen, 115, 127–42. Beersheba, Israel: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press, 2009.

———. “The ‘Word’ or the ‘Enemies’ of the Lord? Revisiting the Euphemism in 2 Sam 12:14.” In Emanuel: Studies in the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, and Dead Sea Scrolls in Honor of Emanuel Tov, edited by Shalom M. Paul, Robert A. Kraft, Lawrence H. Schiffman, and Weston W. Fields, 367–78. Leiden: Brill, 2003.

Parry, Donald W., David V. Arnold, David G. Long, and Scott R. Woodward. “New Technological Advances: DNA, Databases, Imaging Radar.” In The Dead Sea Scrolls after Fifty Years: A Comprehensive Assessment, edited by Peter W. Flint and James C. VanderKam, 1:496–512. Leiden: Brill, 1998–99.

Parry, Donald W., and Steven W. Booras. “The Dead Sea Scrolls CD-ROM Database Project.” In Parry and Ricks, Current Research, 239–50.

Parry, Donald W., Steven W. Booras, and E. Jan Wilson. “The FARMS-BYU Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Database.” In Parry and Pike, LDS Perspectives on the Dead Sea Scrolls, 207–13.

Parry, Donald W., and Frank Moore Cross. “4QSama and 4QSamb.” In The Biblical Qumran Scrolls: Transcriptions and Textual Variants, edited by Eugene Ulrich, 259–322. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

Parry, Donald W., and Dana M. Pike, eds. LDS Perspectives on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Provo, UT: FARMS, 1997.

Parry, Donald W., and Elisha Qimron, eds. The Great Isaiah Scroll (1QIsaa). Leiden: Brill, 1998.

Parry, Donald W., and Stephen D. Ricks, eds. Current Research and Technological Developments on the Dead Sea Scrolls: Conference on the Texts from the Judean Desert, Jerusalem, 30 April 1995. Leiden: Brill, 1996.

———. The Dead Sea Scrolls: Questions and Responses for Latter-day Saints. Provo, UT: FARMS, 2000.

Parry, Donald W., and Gordon W. Romney. “A Digital Signature Signing Engine to Protect the Integrity of Digital Assets.” In Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training 2006 Conference (Sydney, Australia, 2006). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4141711.

Parry, Donald W., and Emanuel Tov. The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader Part 1: Texts Concerned with Religious Law. Leiden: Brill, 2004.

———. The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader Part 2: Exegetical Texts. Leiden: Brill, 2004.

———. The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader Part 3: Parabiblical Texts. Leiden: Brill, 2005.

———. The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader Part 4: Calendrical and Sapiential Texts. Leiden: Brill, 2004.

———. The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader Part 5: Poetic and Liturgical Texts. Leiden: Brill, 2005.

———. The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader Part 6: Additional Genres and Unclassified Texts. Leiden: Brill, 2005.

Parry, Donald W., and Eugene C. Ulrich, eds. The Provo International Conference on the Dead Sea Scrolls: Technological Innovations, New Texts, and Reformulated Issues. Leiden: Brill, 1999.

Pike, Dana M. “466. 4QText Mentioning the Congregation of the Lord,” and “467. 4QText Mentioning ‘Light to Jacob.’ ” In Cryptic Texts and Miscellanea, Part 1, edited by Stephen J. Pfann et al., 396–400. DJD XXXVI. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

———. “The Book of Numbers at Qumran: Texts and Context.” In Parry and Ricks, Current Research, 166–93.

———. “The ‘Congregation of YHWH’ in the Bible and at Qumran.” Revue de Qumran 17/65–68 (1996): 233–40.

———. “Is the Plan of Salvation Attested in the Dead Sea Scrolls?” In Parry and Pike, LDS Perspectives on the Dead Sea Scrolls, 73–94.

———. Review of Dead Sea Scrolls & the Mormon Connection, by Keith Terry and Steven Biddulph. FARMS Review 9/2 (1997): 88–98.

———. “Unidentified Fragments.” In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, edited by Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:955. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Pike, Dana M., and Andrew C. Skinner. “4QMiscellaneous Fragments: Progress and Problems.” In Parry and Ulrich, Provo International Conference, 161–70.

———. “ ’A Light to Jacob’ and Other Interesting Finds in 4QMiscellaneous.” In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery: Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20–25, 1997, edited by Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov, and James C. VanderKam, 385–90. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in Cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

———. Qumran Cave 4, XXIII: Unidentified Fragments. DJD XXXIII. Oxford: Clarendon, 2001.

Reynolds, Noel B. “From the Caves of Qumran to CD-ROM.” Brigham Young Magazine 50/4 (November 1996): 44–52.

———, producer. The Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Reference Library, vol. 2. Leiden: Brill, 1999.

Reynolds, Noel B., and Kristian Heal, producers. The Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library, rev. ed., edited by Emanuel Tov. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

Ricks, Stephen D. “1Q28a Rule of the Congregation,” “4Q175 Testimonia,” and “1Q22 Words of Moses.” In Bradford, Ancient Scrolls from the Dead Sea, 18–26.

———. “The Book of Mormon and the Dead Sea Scrolls.” In Parry and Pike, LDS Perspectives on the Dead Sea Scrolls, 177–89.

———. “Who Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls?” FARMS Paper. Provo, UT: FARMS, 1993.

Robinson, O. Preston. Christ’s Eternal Gospel: Do the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Pseudepigrapha and Other Ancient Records Challenge or Support the Bible? Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1976.

———. The Dead Sea Scrolls and Original Christianity. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1958.

———. “The Pseudepigrapha and the Old Testament.” Instructor, June 1960, 180–81.

Robinson, Stephen E. “The Testament of Adam and the Angelic Liturgy (4QSirSabb).” Revue de Qumran 12 (1985): 105–10.

Rogers, Lewis M. “The Dead Sea Scrolls—Qumran Calmly Revisited.” BYU Studies 2/2 (1960): 109–28.

———. “The Dead Sea Scrolls: Relevance for the New Testament.” In New Testament Conference, 27 February 1960, 22–33. Provo, UT: BYU Extension Publications, 1963.

———. Review of The Dead Sea Scrolls and Original Christianity, by O. Preston Robinson. BYU Studies 1/1 (1959): 68–69.

Seely, David Rolph. “4Q437: A First Look at an Unpublished Barki Nafshi Text.” In Provo International Conference, 147–60.

———, “Barki Nafshi.” In Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, edited by Lawrence H. Schiffman and James C. VanderKam, 2:76–77. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

———. “The Barki Nafshi Texts (4Q434–439).” In Parry and Ricks, Current Research, 194–214.

———. “The ‘Circumcised Heart’ in 4Q434 Barki Nafshi.” Revue de Qumran 17/65–68 (1996): 527–35.

———. “Damascus Document (CD).” In Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, edited by David Noel Freedman, 309. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000.

———. “Implanting Pious Qualities as a Theme in the Barki Nafshi Hymns.” In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery: Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20–25, 1997, edited by Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov, and James C. VanderKam, 321–31. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Journal Society in Cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

———. “The Masada Fragments, the Qumran Scrolls, and the New Testament.” BYU Studies 36/3 (1996–97): 287–301. Reprinted in Masada and the World of the New Testament, edited by John F. Hall and John W. Welch, 287–301. Provo, UT: BYU Studies, 1997.

———. “Praise, Prayer and Worship at Qumran.” In Parry and Pike, LDS Perspectives on the Dead Sea Scrolls, 95–114.

———. Review of The Dead Sea Scrolls Catalogue, by Stephen A. Reed, Marilyn J. Lundberg, and Michael B. Phelps. Hebrew Studies 37 (1996): 187–90.

Seely, David Rolph, and Moshe Weinfeld. “4Q434–438. 4QBarkhi Nafshia–e: Introduction,” “434. 4QBarkhi Nafshia,” “435. 4QBarkhi Nafshib,” “436. 4QBarkhi Nafshic,” “437. 4QBarkhi Nafshid,” and “438. 4QBarkhi Nafshie.” In Qumran Cave 4, XX: Poetical and Liturgical Texts, Part 2, edited by Esther Chazon et al., 255–334. DJD XXIX. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

———. “439. 4QLament by a Leader.” In Qumran Cave 4, XX: Poetical and Liturgical Texts, Part 2, edited by Esther Chazon et al., 335–41. DJD XXIX. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Skinner, Andrew C. “The Ancient People of Qumran: An Introduction to the Dead Sea Scrolls.” In Parry and Pike, LDS Perspectives on the Dead Sea Scrolls, 1–45.

———. “The Dead Sea Scrolls and Latter-day Truth.” Ensign, February 2006, 44–49.

Skousen, Royal. Review of The Dead Sea Scrolls: Questions and Responses for Latter-day Saints, by Donald W. Parry and Stephen D. Ricks. FARMS Review 12/2 (2000): 441–44.

Szink, Terrence L. “Appendix: Unidentified Fragments Published in Other Volumes.” In Pike and Skinner, Qumran Cave 4, XXIII: Unidentified Fragments, 319–69.

Tvedtnes, John A. “4Q22 Paleo Exodusm.” In Bradford, Ancient Scrolls from the Dead Sea, 16–18.

———. “The Dead Sea Scrolls.” In The Church of the Old Testament, 57–80. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1980.

Welch, John W. “Two Windows on the Ancient World.” In Bradford, Ancient Scrolls from the Dead Sea, 13–14.

Wilson, E. Jan. “11QtgJob and the Peshitta Job.” In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years after Their Discovery: Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20–25, 1997, edited by Lawrence H. Schiffman, Emanuel Tov, and James C. VanderKam, 411–17. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society in Cooperation with the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000.

———. “The Masada Synagogue and Its Relationship to Jewish Worship during the Second Temple Period.” BYU Studies 36/3 (1996–97): 269–76. Reprinted in Masada and the World of the New Testament, edited by John F. Hall and John W. Welch, 269–76. Provo, UT: BYU Studies, 1997.

———. “The Yod and Waws of 4QTestimonia and the Use of Digital Imaging Techniques.” Dead Sea Discoveries 6/3 (1999): 324–27.

Wilson, E. Jan, and David K. Geilman. “Mas1d Ezekiel,” “Mas1e Psalms,” “Mas1j Work Similar to Jubilees (‘Prince of Hatred’),” and “Mas1o Papyrus Paleo Fragment (‘Mount Gerizim’).” In Bradford, Ancient Scrolls from the Dead Sea, 27–31.

Woodward, Scott R. “Putting the Pieces Together: DNA and the Dead Sea Scrolls.” In Parry and Pike, LDS Perspectives on the Dead Sea Scrolls, 191–205.

Woodward, Scott R., Gila Kahila, Patricia Smith, Charles Greenblatt, Joe Zias, and Magen Broshi. “Analysis of Parchment Fragments from the Judean Desert Using DNA Techniques.” In Parry and Ricks, Current Research, 215–38.

———. “Putting the Pieces Together: DNA and the Dead Sea Scrolls.” In Parry and Ulrich, Provo International Conference, 30–31.

Daniel B. McKinlay is a research scholar at the Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Steven W. Booras is a research scholar at the Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship.