Illustration Sources

Except where noted, the illustrations have been drawn for this volume by Michael Lyon.

Figure 1, page 8. Tabernacle of Moses and Temple of Solomon. Drawings based on biblical descriptions and current archaeological reconstructions.

Figure 2, page 30, and figure 3, page 31. 1870 photographs from stereographs by W. A. Faze, courtesy of the LDS Church Photo Archives.

Figure 4, page 38. Magic Flute scenic design by Gayl and Nessthaler, Vienna 1791, Historisiche Museum der Stadt, Vienna, from Jurgis Baltrušaitis, La Quéte d’Isis (Paris: Flammarion, 1985), 43.

Figure 5, page 85. (A) Medamud Mound, redrawn from plans in Alexander Badawy, A History of Egyptian Architecture, 3 vols. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1954), 1:116; (B) relief on foot end of stone sarcophagus, Museum of Marseilles, redrawn from Robert Lawlor, Sacred Geometry (London: Thames and Hudson, 1982), 60; (C) British Museum Papyrus 1008, redrawn from Andrzej Niwiński, Theban Funerary Papyri (Freiburg, Switzerland: Universitäts-Verlag, 1989), p. 29a.

Figure 6, page 87. (A) Central axis, Temple of Horus, Edfu, redrawn from Dieter Arnold, Die Tempel Ägyptens: Gotterwohnungen, Kultstatten, Baudenkmaler (Zurich: Artemis & Winkler, 1992), 102; (B) Black granite shrine of Nectanebo, c. 370 B.C., redrawn from Emile Chassinat, Le Temple d’Efou (Cairo: Institut Francais d’Archéologie Oriental, 1984), I, 1, 9.

Figure 7, page 88. Moses before the Tabernacle, fresco, Dura Europos Synagogue, redrawn from Erwin Good-enough, Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period, 12 vols. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1954), vol. 11, ill. 331.

Figure 8, page 89. (A) Taj Mahal, redrawn by Tyler Moulton from Roger Garaudy, L’Islam, habite notre avenir (Desclée De Brouwer, 1981), 54; (B) Map of Paradise, redrawn from Elizabeth Moynihan, Paradise as a Garden in Persia and Mughal India (New York: Braziller, 1979), 147.

Figure 9, page 90. Egyptian threshing floor, from Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson, The Ancient Egyptians, 2 vols. (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1854), 2:55.

Figure 10, page 91. Oracle of Trophonios, drawn from description in Pausanias, Description of Greece, Boeotia XXXIV, 5-14.

Figure 11, page 92. Great Pyramid, redrawn from Virginia Trimble, “Astronomical Investigation concerning the So-called Air-Shafts of Cheop’s Pyramid,” Mitteilungen des Instituts für Orientforschung der deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 10/2-3 (1964): 183.

Figure 12, page 93. Ziggurat of Ur, frontispiece by Marjorie Duffell in Sir Leonard Woolley, The Ziggurat, vol. 5 of Ur Excavations (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum, 1939).

Figure 13, page 95. (A) Gudea with floorplan, diorite, Louvre, redrawn from H. W. Janson, History of Art (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1962), 55, fig. 77; restoration of head based on Gudea head, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, ibid., fig. 78; detail of floorplan from W. Shaw Caldecott, The Tabernacle (London: Religious Tract Society, 1906), 142; (B) kneeling god, redrawn from Andr̩ Parrot, Sumer und Akkad (Munich: Beck, 1983), 248.

Figure 14, page 96. Frontispiece of Iyyun Tefillah (Prayer Book) (Prague: Landau, 1858), courtesy of the Jewish Museum/Art Resource, New York.

Figure 15, page 98. Ishtar temple, from Bruno Meissner, Babylonien und Assyrien (Heidelberg: Winters, 1925).

Figure 16, page 99, and figure 17, page 100. Abydos temple, redrawn from Henri Frankfort, The Cenotaph of Seti I at Abydos (London: Egyptian Exploration Society, 1933), plates 3, 73, 81.

Figure 18, pages 102-3. (A) Tomb of Sennedjem, drawn from plans in Bernard Bruy̬re, La Tombe No 1 de Sen-nedjem (Cairo: L’Institut Fran̤ais, 1959), plates 4, 5, 7, 13, 38; tomb murals from drawings by Abd el Wahab, p. XXXVI-XXXVII; (B) Tomb of Vicentius, redrawn from Johannes Leipoldt, Die Religionen der Umwelt des Urchristentums (Leipzig: Deichert, 1926), no. 166.

Figure 19, page 105. Vestments of the High Priest, redrawn from Moshe Levine, Melekhet ha-Mishkan: Tabnit ha-Mishkan ve-kelav (Tel Aviv: Melekhet ha-Mishkan, 1968), 124-41.

Figure 20, page 106. (A) Stele of Hammurabi, redrawn from M. Gauthier, Le Louvre (Paris: Grange Battelière, 1972), 28; (B) Stele of Ur-Nammu, redrawn from André Parrot, Sumer und Akkad (Munich: Beck, 1983), 241.

Figure 21, page 108. White Obelisk, redrawn from 1853 drawing by C. D. Hodder in Edmond Sollberger, “The White Obelisk,” Iraq 36 (1974): pl. XLII.

Figure 22, page 109. Soreg fragment, redrawn from J. Boudet, Jerusalem, A History (New York: Putnam, 1965), 112.

Figure 23, page 120. Marduk fighting Tiamat, alabaster bas-relief, Nimrud, time of Assurnasirpal II, 883-859 B.C., British Museum, redrawn from Austen Henry Layard, Monuments of Nineveh, second series (London: Murray, 1885), vol. 2, pl. 5.

Figure 24, page 121. Persian tomb, redrawn from C. J. Edmonds, “A Tomb in Kurdistan,” Iraq 1/2 (Nov. 1934): fig. 2.

Figure 25, page 128. Menorah drawing, redrawn from photo in Nahman Avigad, The Herodian Quarter in Jerusalem (Jerusalem: Keter, 1989), 47.

Figure 26, page 131. Giovanni di Paolo, Creation of the World, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Robert Lehman Collection, 1975.1.31, redrawn from museum postcard.

Figure 27, pages 134-35. Garden of Eden landscape and Tabernacle based on interpretation of scriptural descriptions.

Figure 28, page 140. (A) Bronze cherubim/sphinxes, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund 1953.120, redrawn from museum postcard; (B) king on cherubim throne, ivory plaque, adapted from Gordon Loud, The Megiddo Ivories (Chicago: University of Chicago Oriental Institute Publications, 1939), vol. 52, pl. 4.

Figure 29, page 154. Ur-Nammu carrying basket, bronze, Baghdad Museum, Iraq, redrawn from Percy Knauth, The Metalsmiths (New York: TimeLife, 1974), 35.

Figure 30, page 208. Temple oval at Khafajah, redrawn from restoration by H. D. Darby in Pinhas Delougaz, The Temple Oval at Khafajah (Chicago: University of Chicago Oriental Institute Publications, 1940), vol. 53, frontispiece.

Figure 31, page 214. Stele of Bel-Harran-Beli-Ussur, redrawn from Eckhard Unger, Die Stele des Bel-Harran-Beli-Ussur ein Denkmal der Zeit Salmanassars IV (Constantinople: Ahmed Ihsan, 1917), pl. 1.

Figure 32, page 239. Daijosai of Hirohito, drawnby Tekisui Ishii in Enthronement of the 124th Emperor of Japan. Commemorative issue of the Japan Advertiser, November 1928, Tokyo, Benjamin W. Fleisher, publisher,p. 55.

Figure 33, page 245. Royal names of Ramses II, translation courtesy of John Gee.

Figure 34, page 247. Coronation of mock king based on contemporary artifacts and reconstruction painting by H. M. Herget, in Gilbert Grosvenor, ed., Everyday Life in Ancient Times (Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1951), 44; quotation from A. K. Grayson, Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles (Locust Valley, NY: Augustin, 1970), 155; courtesy of John Gee.

Figure 35, page 255. (A) Stone lintel, Cairo Museum, redrawn from Vagn Poulsen, Egyptian Art (Greenwich, Connecticut: New York Graphic Society, 1968), 82; (B) ritual girdle, c. 1950 B.C., Cairo Museum, redrawn from C. Andrews, Ancient Egyptian Jewelry (London: British Museum, 1990), 141.

Figure 36, pages 258-59. Egyptian coronation scene, Karnac, Temple of Khonsu, from Champollion, Monuments de l’Égypte, 4 vols. (Paris: Didot, 1845), 4:pl. cccviii; Persian crown, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fletcher Fund, 1965.126, redrawn from museum postcard; Nubian crown, redrawn from Walter Emory, Lost Land Emerging (New York: Scribner’s, 1967), 140; Siamese crown from Thai royal crest; Chinese crown, redrawn from C. A. S. Williams, Outlines of Chinese Symbolism (Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1941), 88; Japanese crown, redrawn from news-paper photo of Emperor Akihito.

Figure 37, page 283. Birth of the Buddha, Tibetan tanka, Musée Guimet, redrawn from Heinz Bechert and Richard Gombrich, eds., The World of Buddhism (London: Thames & Hudson, 1984), 20, fig. 9.

Figure 38, page 284. Balawat gate relief, bronze, British Museum, redrawn from William S. Smith, Interconnections in the Ancient Near East (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965), fig. 166a.

Figure 39, page 285. Palace mural from Mari, redrawn and heavily restored from Horizon Book of Lost Worlds (New York: American Heritage, 1962), 162-63.

Figure 40, pages 402-3. Astronomical structures: (1) Medicine wheel, redrawn from E. C. Krupp, In Search of Ancient Astronomies (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978), 159; (2) Monk’s Mound, redrawn from Joseph Campbell, Mythologies of the Great Hunt (New York: Harper & Row, 1988), 216; (3) High Bank Works, five miles south of Chillicothe, Ohio, redrawn from Ray Hively and Robert Horn, “Hopewellian Geometry and Astronomy at High Bank,” Archaeoastronomy 7 (1984): S94, fig. 7; (4) La Venta, redrawn from Joseph Campbell, The Mythic Image (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974), 105; (5) Templo Major, Tenochtitlan, redrawn from E. C. Krupp, Echoes of Ancient Skies (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), 268; (6) Sacsahuaman, redrawn from Builders of the Ancient World (Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1986), 117; (7) Step Pyramid, redrawn from Jean-Philippe Lauer, Les pyramides de Sakkarah (Cairo: IFAO, 1977), fig. 6; (8) Sun altar, redrawn from Henri Frankfort, City of Akhenaton (London: Egyptian Exploration Society, 1933), pl. xxvi; (9) Kaaba, redrawn from Desmond Stewart, Mecca (New York: Newsweek, 1980), 128; (10) Altar of Heaven, redrawn from Campbell, The Mythic Image, 98; (11) Tomb Pyramid of Prince Yide, redrawn from World Atlas of Archaeology (Boston: Hall, 1985), 274; (12) New Grange, redrawn from Krupp, Echoes of Ancient Skies, 124-25.

Figure 41, page 418-19. Second Temple, redrawn from Charles J. Melchior, Marquis de Vogue, Le Temple de Jerusalem (Paris: Noblet & Baudry, 1864).

Figure 42, page 523. (A) Ivory pomegranate, redrawn from Nahman Avigad, “The Inscribed Pomegranate from the ‘House of the Lord,'” Biblical Archaeologist 53/3 (September 1990): 160; (B) inscribed bowl, redrawn from Yigael Yadin, The Temple Scroll (New York: Putnam, 1965), 112.

Figure 43, page 558. (A) brass coin of Domitian, from Seth W. Stevenson, A Dictionary of Roman Coins (London: Bell & Sons, 1889), 149; (B) Salt Lake Temple handclasp, redrawn from C. Mark Hamilton, The Salt Lake Temple: A Monument to a People (Salt Lake City: University Services, 1983), 157.

Figure 44, page 560. (A) inscribed clay cone, redrawn from The Age of God-Kings (Alexandria, VA: TimeLife Books, 1987), 43; (B) Egyptian clay cone, redrawn from Lepsius, Denkmäler Textband (Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1897), 1:9; (C) Sopdu falcon, redrawn from Alexandre Piankoff, The Pyramid of Unas (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968), pl. 8, line 480d; (D) Senmut tomb ceiling, redrawn from Charles K. Wilkinson, Egyptian Wall Paintings (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1983), 31; (E) Magic nail, from Richard W̼nsch, Antikes Zaubergerät aus Pergamon (Berlin: Reimer, 1905), p. 3.

Figure 45, page 561. (A) Pole of Min, Dendera, redrawn from Robert D. Anderson, Egypt in 1800: Napoleon’s Description de L’Egypte (London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1987), pl. 40; (B) Irminsul, redrawn from Nold Egenter, Sacred Symbols of Reed and Bamboo (Bern: Lang, 1982), 85; (C) Voladores, redrawn from E. C. Krupp, Echoes of the Ancient Skies (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), 210; (D) Otaimatsu, redrawn from Egenter, Sacred Symbols, 14b.

Figure 46, page 573. (A) Spirit door of Djoser, redrawn by Tyler Moulton from Jean Leclant, Ägypten, 3 vols. (Munich: Beck, 1979), 1:58; (B) Temple of Seti I, Abydos, drawn from plans in Amice M. Calverly, The Temple of King Sethos I at Abydos, 4 vols. (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1933), 1:pl. 1.

Figure 47, page 575. Tomb of Fan Yen-Shih, reconstructed from descriptions in Sir Aurel Stein, Innermost Asia, 3 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1928), 2:663-66; 3:plan 34, Astana IX.2.

Figure 48, page 592. (A) Egyptian incense burner, redrawn from F. Ll. Griffith, Beni Hasan (London: Egypt Exploration Fund, 1900), pt. IV, pl. XVII; Steatite incense burner, redrawn from Herbert G. May, Material Remains of the Megiddo Cult (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1935), pl. XVII.

Figure 49, page 603. Thoth, sandstone bas-relief, Temple of Amon, Karnac, reign of Hatshepsut, redrawn from Isha Schwaller de Lubicz, Her-Bak: Egyptian Initiate (New York: Inner Traditions, 1978), 116.

Figure 50, pages 628-29. (1) Sanchi stupa, redrawn from Henry Millon, Key Monuments of the History of Architecture (New York: Abrams, 1965), 162; (2) silver stupa, Doris Wiener Collection, New York City, redrawn from Pratapaditya Pal, Light of Asia, Buddha Sakyamuni in Asian Art (Los Angeles: L.A. County Museum, 1984), 136; (3) Sung-Yüeh Ssu, Honan, China, from photographs; (4) Ta-Yen T’a, Cháng-an, Shensi, from photographs; (5) Goju-no-to, Horyuji, Nara, from Heinz Bechert and Richard Gombrich, eds., The World of Buddhism (London: Thames & Hudson, 1984), 95; (6) Borobudur, Indonesia, redrawn from Adrian Snodgrass, The Symbolism of the Stupa (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985), 142.

Figure 51, page 631. Jung, Mandala painting from Aniela Jaffed, ed., C. G. Jung: Word and Image (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979), 91.

Figure 52, page 650. (A) Aaron, fresco in Dura Europos Synagogue, redrawn from Alfred Rubens, A History of Jewish Costume (London: Owen, 1981), 20; (B) High Priest, thirteenth-century Hebrew manuscript, British Library, redrawn from Jean Comay, Temple of Jerusalem (New York: Holt, Rinehart, 1975), 55; (C) High Priest, eighteenth-century German engraving, Rheinisches Bildarchiv, from Geoffrey Wigoder, Encyclopedia of Judaism (New York: Macmillan, 1989), 568.

Figure 53, page 660. Jew wearing tallith, Dutch engraving, 1725, from Alfred Rubens, A History of Jewish Costumes (London: Owen, 1981), 9.