Home is Where the Exile Is:
Ambivalence in the Mormon Settlement of Southern Alberta

For six weeks in the summer of 2014, student scholars met daily in the Maxwell Institute library to discuss and research the topic “The History of the Mormon Family.” This seminar was sponsored by the Mormon Scholars Foundation, hosted by the Maxwell Institute, and directed by Claudia and Richard Bushman.The Summer Seminar Working Papers 2014 are the result of the research done by the students and were presented at a BYU symposium on July 22–25, 2014. Working papers have not been closely edited and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Maxwell Institute.



In the 1879 novel Young Mrs. Jardine the main character, Roderick, recalls his father’s advice that “the deepest tenderness a woman can show to a man is to help him to do his duty.”[1]   Rhea Card Matkin, granddaughter of Canadian Latter-day Saints, borrowed this quote to describe her mother in the foreword to Histories of Joseph Young Card and Pearl Eliza Christensen Card. Rhea’s mother Pearl “understood her divine calling as a loyal companion, help-mate, and devoted mother.”[2] Her father Joseph acknowledged that his role in the family was as a priesthood leader and loving patriarch.[3] “The most important thing a father can do for his children,” continued Rhea, citing Catholic priest Theodore Hesburgh, “is to love their mother.”[4] Rhea’s use of Victorian literature and Catholic instruction shows that, even by the third generation, Latter-day Saints in Canada continued to endorse principles of an ideal home. In an article for The Improvement Era, Joseph F. Smith defined “the ideal home” as a place where “the father is devoted to the family…there is confidence, union, love, sacred devotion, between father and mother, and children and parents…the mother takes every pleasure in her children supported by the father.”[5]  The Mormon pioneers in Alberta aimed for this ideal even though they felt exiled from their Utah homes and sought refuge on foreign land.

The Latter-day Saints that chose to practice the principle of plural marriage lived according to their own model. In a perfect polygamous unit, a sensitive, stable, and fair man worthy of the priesthood led the family and had enough resources to support more than one household. Women depended on their husband for financial support and assisted him in traditional ways. The best-case scenario required the wives to be approximately the same age, living in separate homes, and following a regular visiting schedule.[6]  Victorian Americans opposed this type of family government and applied legal and political pressures that caused polygamous Mormons to respond. Some responded by migrating to Canada with one wife and her children while the other wife, or wives, stayed in the United States. In this paper, I argue that shifting values and expectations changed the structure of the Mormon family in Canada during the period of settlement from 1887 to 1900. During this time, Latter-day Saints emphasized certain values and principles intended to create ideal families and homes. They expected men to take the priesthood leadership position and women to perform roles inside and outside the home, such as mother and teacher. Attempts to both satisfy and deviate from these expectations affected the Saints’ idea of home.

The Priesthood

In the Mormon family, the husband and father held the priesthood role, which enabled him to perform certain religious functions, such as administering blessings and providing righteous advice as the spiritual and temporal leader of his family. Mormon husbands and fathers in Canada found themselves in a predicament—they had moved their families to avoid imprisonment and maintain the appearance of monogamy, but, by separating households, they became inaccessible to their wives and children. To protect their families, the men left at least one wife without a companion and priesthood holder. Furthermore, Mormon men in Canada were still responsible to the Church back in Utah since they were also spiritual leaders for the new communities. Not only did they have their families in Canada to care for, but they also had families in the United States that still required their presence. Latter-day Saint men were pulled in several directions: to Canada to begin safe settlements; to Salt Lake City to attend General Conference; and to visit their families scattered throughout Utah and Idaho. Visits to their former homes were rare and it was even more difficult to gather the entire family in one single location. Founder of Cardston, Alberta Charles Ora Card visited his wives Lavinia and Sarah on average about twice a year.[7] Long absences meant that these men missed important family events, which not only affected familial relationships, but also was also problematic for constructing a sense of home in Canada.

The diaries of Charles Ora Card provide an example of routine travel between Alberta and Utah, demonstrating the great distances travelled (897 miles), and the duration of each trip.  For example, on March 25, 1891, Card left Cardston at 8:30 in the morning, spent the night on the banks of the St. Mary’s River, and arrived in Lethbridge, Alberta the following evening. On March 27, he took the train to Great Falls, Montana and arrived at one in the morning. Card and his travelling party arose at 7:30 am, departed at 10:30 am for Butte, Montana, and arrived at 6:30 in the evening just to take another train to Idaho that same night. From Market Lake, Card travelled by horse and wagon to Rexburg and arrived at his wife Lavinia’s Idaho home at 3:30 pm on March 29, 1891. After this three-day visit with Lavinia and her children, Card continued on to Salt Lake City to attend General Conference in April. He returned to Alberta on May 28, 1891, after an absence of almost two months. This was the length and type of trip he took twice a year to keep up with his responsibilities as husband, father, and spiritual leader.

Card tried his best to visit his wives and children living in the United States, but it was impossible to travel as freely as he wished, especially as a fugitive wanted for the practice of polygamy. Card’s journey to Hyde Park, Utah, in February of 1889 was the first opportunity to see Lavinia and Sarah since moving to Canada. In his diary entry for February 22, 1889, Card wrote, “here I met my wife Sarah who was overjoyed in the meeting after an elapse of 23 months.”[8] The following February he was once again reunited with Sarah and Lavinia after a ten month separation.[9] In 1894 Card stated that, “although I have been absent from this branch of my family for 10 months not a complaint was made by my wife who ever tries to make it pleasant for me when I come.”[10]

The next wave of immigration to Canada included future Alberta Stake and Cardston Temple president Edward J. Wood. Wood moved to Canada with his first wife Mary Ann Solomon and married his second wife, Mary Ann’s sister Adelaide, around 1903/1904 in Salt Lake City, where she remained.[11] Historian Jessie L. Embry described the lifestyle of Latter-day Saints in Canada as “de facto monogamy.”[12] Mentally and spiritually they were polygamous, but day-to-day they lived monogamously within a larger community of monogamist polygamists. Vi Wood, son of Edward and Mary Ann, remembered the effects polygamy had on the communities in and around Cardston:

“There was really little difference. Here the polygamous families were never together. One family was in Utah in most cases. So actually when I was growing up here, as far as we were concerned it was more or less single families, rather than polygamous families.”[13]

Unfortunately, by playing monogamy, fathers were absent for significant life events and, while perhaps they fulfilled some priesthood duties, they neglected others. Card’s first child with Lavinia Rigby was born in Utah October 14, 1887 while he was busy constructing homes in Alberta in an attempt to beat the arrival of winter. Charles did not meet his daughter Mary until February 23, 1889.[14] The relationships with his young children continued to suffer during the years of separation. In March of 1891, Charles returned to Lavinia and their children in Idaho, describing the visit in his journal:

“[W]hen I took the child & began to talk to it, it began to cry & I had to hand my own child back to the Sister in charge and renew my acquaintance by degrees and in half an hour I could caress & play with it without its crying. Thus it goes when we have to have our families Scattered.”[15]

In addition to missing births and bonding experiences, Charles failed to offer religious leadership. He discovered that his children by Sarah Painter had poor knowledge of church history when he questioned them on the topic during a visit in 1897. Expressing frustration in his journal entry of February 22, Charles wrote, “I have been in Canada the most of the time for 10 yrs & alas my childrens [sic] loss.”[16] A few weeks later, Charles noticed two of his daughters misbehaving during Sunday School and reported, “I find my absence has wrought mischief with my family for it is hard for some mothers to see faults in their children & are often deceived by them & children are excused…Many fathers like myself are called abroad & must trust their children to these shepherds of the flock.”[17]

Card’s three wives each had their own, separate home. Even so, the separate homes were significant distances apart making visits difficult. Card and other displaced patriarchs faced a dilemma. They could be active priesthood leaders for all family members by travelling across several states to visit each household, always leaving one or more households without its patriarch, or they could devote themselves to one household and travel even less frequently to others.

Latter-day Saints in Alberta further adjusted the idea of home by first treating Canada as a temporary refuge instead of a permanent settlement. They felt exiled from their homeland and became essentially nomadic, always on the move, staying overnight with friends and family. Did the word “home” still hold meaning? Was “home” as mobile as the priesthood leader? As the Mormons in Canada were in a state of flux, so were their ideas of home. Sometimes fathers were absent from the home because they were in hiding or visiting other relatives or travelling for business; other times the temporary visit and short-term stays of the father and husband made the ideal home seem possible. However, by trying to fulfil priesthood responsibilities both in the household and for the Church, Mormon men ultimately neglected other duties and thereby made it impossible for them to be “ideal” in anyway.

Perhaps the concept of “ideal” became something different in the minds of the Canadian Latter-day Saints.  In Crossing and Dwelling, Thomas Tweed defines the homeland as “an imaginary territory inhabited by an imagined community, a space and group continually figured and refigured in contact with others, its borders shift over time and across cultures.”[18] From the Church’s founding, Latter-day Saints have been consistently familiar with shifting borders and movements across space. The migration to Canada is another example of Latter-day Saints crossing boundaries in a collective attempt to find meaning in the world.


In the late 19th century, the ideal Mormon woman was a loyal wife, dedicated mother, and spiritual role model. Nevertheless, in the Mormon settlements of southern Alberta female Latter-day Saints took on additional roles that placed them in the centre of Church activity. Women performed healings, gave blessings, spoke in tongues, and prophesied. These wives and mothers, like their husbands and fathers, altered the notion of an ideal family.

Mormon women in southern Alberta had just as many responsibilities as their husbands. At a December meeting of the Cardston Ward Relief Society in 1895, Mary Woolf (seated, centre) claimed that, “it is a continuous struggle to look after and perform the many duties that we as Mothers have to perform.”[19] Historians note that most roles remained delineated by sex, but it was the experience of the western Canadian frontier that placed more responsibility on women than they were used to before arrival.[20] Eliane Leslau Silverman interviewed 130 women that arrived in Alberta between 1895 and 1929 and found that “women worked just as men worked…Women were mobilized to action…even when they had known a more leisured life elsewhere.”[21] The western Canadian frontier moved the women’s world outside of the private realm to include roles outside the home and beyond simple refinement. Leonard J. Arrington and Davis Bitton confirmed that “Mormon women were not confined to household duties,” but also acknowledged that their most important contribution during these pioneer times was as “help[mate] for [their] husband and mother for the children God would send to them.”[22]

Meetings of the Cardston Ward Relief Society allowed female pioneers to gather and share their thoughts on a variety of issues concerning the new settlement. On April 4, 1890, the Relief Society secretary recorded frustrations with the situation in southern Alberta and reported Rhoda Hinman (middle, 2nd from left) stating,  “how long we have got to stand this persecution we know not.”[23] The persecution Rhoda referred to is the prosecution of polygamists in the United States, the primary reason they moved to Canada. Rhoda’s statement reveals she still viewed the Canadian settlement as temporary. At the following Relief Society meeting, President Mary Woolf advised the women to “be faithful in all our duties, be helpmates to our husbands; we have great responsibilities resting on us, the watch care of our children, to direct and counsel them alright.”[24] This highlights two of the numerous roles women played: dutiful wife and child care provider.[25]

But most of these women had lives before they became wives and mothers, and they certainly had different lives before moving to Alberta. For example, prior to her marriage to Charles Card, Zina Young was a widowed mother of two working as school matron for Brigham Young Academy.[26] She taught courses on hygiene, sewing, handicrafts, and domestic arts for five years, but her responsibilities did not stay within the classroom.[27] Zina became a substitute mother for the female students and helped them in various aspects of life, from finding suitable housing to treating physical and mental wellness. When Zina met Charles, she had survived the passing of her father, first husband, and son Tommy. She was independent, educated, and resourceful—a trait common to the pioneers.

Furthermore, Mormon women in Alberta came from a variety of backgrounds. Some were British or European immigrants while others were born and raised outside Utah and involved in the migration west. One thing they all had in common was former residence in Utah. Comparatively, Utah was decades ahead of the Canadian territory in terms of urbanization and growth. Census data shows that Salt Lake City had a population of over 50,000 by 1900 and Cache County about 18,000. Latter-day Saints moved from these heavily populated areas to southern Alberta where the two closest towns, Fort Macleod and Lethbridge, each had fewer than 4,000 residents. The pioneers were once more building up the kingdom from nothing.

Occasionally, influences from their former lives surfaced in the new prairie settlement. Zina Young Card transformed their first log cabin into a memorable home bringing the refinement of the city to their isolated town. Her daughter, also named Zina, recalled that her mother covered the walls and ceilings with unbleached muslin and Canton flannel. The dining-room/family room was finished in British Tan with a gold and rose paper border. Her living room, which also served as an additional bedroom, was a pale canary yellow. Zina filled her simple log cabin with furniture and ornaments, such as a silk and cashmere quilt in log cabin design, a reed organ, china displayed in a built-in cupboard, gold and blue tapestry covering a low table, and potted plants decorating the window sills.[28] By transforming houses into homes, families settled into their new surroundings and began to accept that their refuge in Canada was no longer temporary.

Female Latter-day Saints in southern Alberta also had ecclesiastical roles in addition to their domestic duties as wives and mothers. In 1890, the Relief Society secretary recorded Nellie Taylor’s testimony in which she recalled Joseph Smith preaching “those that were faithful in the Relief Society should share the Priesthood with their husbands.”[29] In October of the same year, Nellie Layne spoke to the Relief Society and said that, although their children require a lot of their attention as mothers, they “should live near to the Lord and try to be ready to fill any position.”[30] These other positions involved speaking in tongues, blessing the brethren, and prophesying.

Charles Ora Card documented in his journal on June 6, 1895, an instance of both the gift of tongues and prophesy where Sarah Hinman spoke and Zina Card interpreted. Charles published Zina interpreting that,

“The angels are watching over us. Some of you think you are exiled from the Church, not so. You are part of the church. Many of your sons here will fill missions in this land…” [31]

Charles’ journals provide several cases of women performing blessings, even on high-ranking male leaders. On November 20, 1895, the wife of Don C. Hyde arose and spoke in tongues to the group. She told the women in the room that they had a specific role in the Gospel, she prophesied that H. S. Allen and Sterling Williams would perform great work, and blessed Charles, stating he would become better known in the future for his hard work.[32] In a testimony meeting with the younger church members, Lizzie Hammer (back row, left) “burst out in tongues which was accompanied by the spirit of prophecy.” Lizzie continued to bless all around her “especially the leading Priesthood.” To Charles she said that he was “the right man in the right place” and was serving the people as best as he could. Lizzie also blessed Charles’ stepson Sterling Williams and the community’s patriarch H. L. Hinman.[33] Sarah Hinman blessed Charles on November 5, 1896, according to his journal, and said he “was a servant of God & had his spirit & said even [his] youngest children would rise up & call [him] blessed.”[34]

During the Christmas holidays of 1888, the women of Cardston were left on their own while the married men returned to Utah to visit their other families. Zina Card Brown described the memory of her mother Zina Young Card as follows:

Word had come to the village that some government officials were coming to visit the Mormons. What, oh what, were the dear Saints to do: Mother was resourceful and this proved a real asset to the situation…all the older and seemingly eligible young men were summoned to be substitute husbands for the evening.[35]

Obviously the women feared the government authorities would discover that their husbands had more than one wife, something they had continuously denied since settling the area. Alternatively, this short-term solution could have caused problems in the future when the real husbands returned home and the government officials re-visited the community. Hiding their true identity as polygamists was strategic in terms of integration, but keeping a significant part of their identity a secret would require once more living in hiding and fearing discovery, the exact situation which had initially led them to leave the United States.


Clearly, the Latter-day Saint women in Alberta were capable of taking care of themselves in the absence of their husbands. They were quick to problem solve and comfortable performing duties reserved for male leaders. The ideal home in Canada involved women that completed a variety of roles within the home and community. The more controversial duties, such as blessing and prophesying, did not bother the men who held the priesthood. Charles never recorded surprise or disdain in his entries describing the actions of the female Saints. The events are noteworthy, but not shocking or offensive to witnesses. In Alberta, the notion of an ideal family where women executed numerous roles in their day-to-day lives meant that they ignored gender designations and constructed a different model to follow.

Furthermore, priesthood leaders trying to embody the attributes of an ideal head of household found themselves in an impossible situation. To satisfy the needs of multiple households in various locations across two countries required men to travel and neglect other responsibilities. The constant displacement from Utah and Canada made it difficult for the travellers to identify either place as home. Latter-day Saints were a unique case of immigration because they self-identified as exiles, but frequently returned to their former homeland. Other groups on the western Canadian frontier, such as the Ukrainian Orthodox or German Lutherans, were separated from their former homes by large bodies of water rather than a few states.

The migration to southern Alberta disrupted the Mormons’ picture of ideal home-life for polygamous families. In theory, wives were loyal, helpful, and dedicated mothers; husbands were priesthood leaders, patriarchs, and loving fathers, but, like all ideal types, they did not exist and a new family type emerged. Leaving Utah and starting over in Canada forced the Saints to restructure their roles as they lived in exile. Women added more responsibilities while men struggled to balance all of theirs. Families restructured and blossomed on the prairies regardless of where the exile was.


Anderson, Nels. “The Mormon Family.” American Sociological Review 2 no. 5 (1937): 601-608.

Arrington, Leonard J. and Davis Bitton. The Mormon Experience: A History of the Latter-day Saints, 2nd ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

Beecher, Maureen Ursenbach. “Mormon Women in Southern Alberta: The Pioneer Years.” In The Mormon Presence in Canada,” edited by Brigham Y. Card, Herbert C. Northcott, John E. Foster, Howard Palmer, and George K. Jarvis, 211-230. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1990.

Bradley, Martha Sonntag and Mary Brown Firmage Woodward. Four Zinas: A Story of Mothers and Daughters on the Mormon Frontier. Utah: Signature Books, 2000.

Brown, Zina Card Brown. Memoirs of early Cardston, circa 1962. Zina Card Brown family collection. MS 4780. Church History Library, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Burnham, Marie Card, editor. Histories of Joseph Young Card and Pearl Eliza Christensen Card. Provo: J. Grant Stevenson, 1976.

Card, Charles Ora. The Diaries of Charles Ora Card: The Canadian Years, 1886-1903. Edited by Donald G. Godfrey and Brigham Y. Card. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1993.

– – – -. Charles Ora Card Collection, 1871-1906, MSS 1543, L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University.

Card, Orson Rega. Oral History Interview with Orson Rega Card, 1983 February 22. MSS 6911. L.D.S. polygamy oral history project, 1959-1982. L. Tom B. Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

Cardston Ward, Alberta Stake. Cardston Ward Relief Society minutes and records, 1887- 1911. LR 1423 14. Church History Library, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Craik, Dinah Mulock. Young Mrs. Jardine. Leipzig: Bernard Tauchnitz, 1879.

Embry, Jessie L. “Exiles for the Principle: LDS Polygamy in Canada.” Dialogue 18 no. 3 (1985): 108-116.

– – – -. ““Two Legal Wives”: Mormon Polygamy in Canada, the United Sates and Mexico.” In The Mormon Presence in Canada,” edited by Brigham Y. Card, Herbert C. Northcott, John E. Foster, Howard Palmer, and George K. Jarvis, 170-185. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1990.

– – – -. Setting the Record Straight: Mormons & Polygamy. Orem: Millennial Press, Inc., 2007.

Hudson, James Arlend. “Charles Ora Card, pioneer and colonizer.” Master’s Thesis, Brigham Young University, 1961.

Olson, Vicky Burgess. “Family Structure and Dynamics in Early Utah Mormon Families, 1867-1885.” PhD dissertation, Northwestern University, 1975.

Silverman, Eliane Leslau. “Women and the Victorian Work Ethic on the Alberta Frontier: Prescription and Description.” In The New Provinces: Alberta and Saskatchewan, 1905-1980, 91-99. Edited by Howard Palmer and Donald Smith. Vancouver: Tantalus Research Limited, 1980.

Smith, Joseph F. “The Ideal Home.” The Improvement Era 8 no. 1 (1905): 385-388.

Tweed, Thomas A. Crossing and Dwelling: A Theory of Religion. Cambridge; London: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Wood, V.A. V.A. Wood Oral History Interview: Tape and Transcript, 1982 July 26. MSS      OH 507. L.D.S. polygamy oral history project, 1959-1982. L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.



[1] Dinah Mulock Craik, Young Mrs. Jardine (Leipzig: Bernhard Tauchnitz, 1879), 174. The novel was serialized in Harper’s Magazine 1879.

[2] Rhea Card Matkin, “Foreword,” in Marie Card Burnham, ed. Histories of Joseph Young Card and Pearl Eliza Christensen Card (Provo: J. Grant Stevenson, 1976), ii.

[3] Ibid., i-ii.

[4] Ibid., ii.

[5] Joseph F. Smith, “The Ideal Home,” The Improvement Era 8 no. 1 (1905): 387.

[6] Jessie L. Embry, Setting the Record Straight: Mormons & Polygamy (Orem: Millennial Press, Inc., 2007), 91-100. Vicky Burgess Olson, “Family Structure and Dynamics in Early Utah Mormon Families, 1867-1885” (PhD Diss., Northwestern University, 1975), 121-122.

[7] James Arlend Hudson, “Charles Ora Card, pioneer and colonizer” (Master’s Thesis, BYU, 1961), 159.

[8] Charles Ora Card, The Diaries of Charles Ora Card: The Canadian Years, 1886-1903, ed. Donald G. Godfrey and Brigham Y. Card (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1993), 73.

[9] Ibid., 112.

[10] Ibid., 249.

[11] Jessie L. Embry, “Exiles for the Principle: LDS Polygamy in Canada,” Dialogue 18 no. 3 (1985): 112.

[12] Jessie L. Embry, ““Two Legal Wives”: Mormon Polygamy in Canada, the United Sates and Mexico,” in The Mormon Presence in Canada, ed. Brigham Y. Card et al. (Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1990), 178.

[13] V.A. Wood, interviewed by Jessie Embry, July 26, 1982, MSS OH 507, transcript, 5. L.D.S. polygamy oral history project, 1959-1982. L. Tom B. Lee Library, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

[14] Charles Ora Card, Charles Ora Card Collection, 1871-1906, MSS 1543, L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University.

[15] Card, The Diaries, 183.

[16] Ibid., 384.

[17] Ibid., 386.

[18] Thomas A. Tweed, Crossing and Dwelling: A Theory of Religion (Cambridge; London: Harvard University Press, 2008), 110.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Maureen Ursenbach Beecher, “Mormon Women in Southern Alberta: The Pioneer Years,” in The Mormon Presence in Canada, ed. Brigham Y. Card et al. (Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1990), 211.

[21] Eliane Leslau Silverman, Women and the Victorian Work Ethic on the Alberta Frontier: Prescription and Description,” in The New Provinces: Alberta and Saskatchewan, 1905-1980, edited by Howard Palmer and Donald Smith (Vancouver: Tantalus Research Limited, 1980), 92.

[22] Leonard J. Arrington and Davis Bitton, The Mormon Experience: A History of the Latter-day Saints, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992), 188.

[23] Cardston Ward, Minutes, 1890-1903, Cardston Ward Relief Society minutes and records, 1887-1911. Church History Library, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah.

[24] Ibid.

[25] According to Nels Anderson’s article on the Mormon family, young girls were always interested in childcare. Nels Anderson, “The Mormon Family,” American Sociological Review 2 no. 5 (1937): 605. Around the age of twelve years old, the daughter of Charles Ora and Zina Young Card wanted a real-life baby. Her brother Orson Rega recalls it was her motherly instinct that initiated this desire for a child. Orson remembers that his sister managed to convince their parents and Charles traded a horse for an Aboriginal baby from the neighbouring reservation. Unfortunately, the young girl’s interest in the baby only lasted a couple days and he was eventually returned to his biological mother. Orson Rega Card, interviewed by Zola Brown, February 22, 1983, MSS 6911, transcript, 2-3. L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University.

[26] Martha Sonntag Bradley and Mary Brown Firmage Woodward, Four Zinas (Utah: Signature Books, 2000), 254.

[27] Ibid., 260.

[28] Zina Card Brown, Memoirs of early Cardston, circa 1962, Zina Card Brown family collection. Church History Library, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah.

[29] Cardston Ward, Minutes, 1890-1903, Cardston Ward Relief Society minutes and records, 1887-1911.

[30] Ibid.

[31] Card, The Diaries, 296.

[32] Ibid., 319.

[33] Ibid., 327. This was not the last time Lizzie Hammer blessed Charles Ora Card. She would do so again the following year in September. Ibid., 356.

[34] Ibid., 370. On this occasion, Sarah also put her hands on the head of the Bishop.

[35] Brown, Memoirs of early Cardston, circa 1962.